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The Collector by John Fowles. TYPES OF SPEECH AND CHARACTER STUDY. TYPES OF SPEECH. Direct speech Indirect (reported) speech Free indirect speech. FREE INDIRECT SPEECH.

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The collector by john fowles

The Collectorby John Fowles


Types of speech

Direct speech

Indirect (reported) speech

Free indirect speech

Free indirect speech

  • Free indirect speech is a mode of third-person narration involving elements of first-person direct speech, to the effect that the voices of the narrator and the character overlap.

  • Free indirect speech, unlike regular indirect speech, lacks introductory expressions such as "She replied" or "he said"; it imitates first-hand evidence of what the character is thinking and feeling rather than saying things aloud.

Free indirect speech example

“Her astonishment, as she reflected on what had passed, was increased by every review of it. That she should receive an offer of marriage from Mr. Darcy! that he should have been in love with her for so many months! so much in love as to wish to marry her in spite of all the objections which had made him prevent his friend’s marrying her sister, and which must appear at least with equal force in his own case, was almost incredible!”

Jane Austin. Pride and Prejudice, Chapter XXXIV

Types of speech1
Types of Speech

What types of speech do we encounter in The Collector?

Provide examples.


  • How do literary characters differ from real people?

  • What elements are characters made of?

  • What kinds of characters do you know?

Types of characters
Types of Characters

  • Central character

  • Protagonist

  • Antagonist

  • Villain

  • Minor/secondary character

Character dynamics
Character Dynamics

  • Static character does not evolve, does not respond to the events with any changes.

  • Dynamic character experiences inner growth, changes (for the good or for the bad) as a result of involvement in the action, or contemplations, or interaction with other characters.

Character dynamics1
Character Dynamics

  • Round characters are complex and tend to develop, but can also remain static (not undergo a major change).

  • Flat characters are two-dimensional and usually static.

Flat underdeveloped character
Flat (underdeveloped) character

  • A flat character is not necessarily the author’s failure.

  • A flat character can appear if he/she is not the focus of the story or because the story does not belong to the realistic mode of literature.

    Example: allegoric stories, fables, tales, symbolic narratives, philosophical stories, etc.

Flat character a sidekick or a foil
Flat Character: A Sidekick or A Foil

Sherlock Holmes


Doctor Watson

Flat character stock
Flat Character: Stock

  • Stock character

    (a recognizable type)


  • stock villain

  • mad scientist

  • damsel in distress

  • nice old lady

Flat character type
Flat Character: Type

Type exemplifies a personality trait or an emotion (predominantly, in non-realistic literature), such as Penelope in Greek mythology, the embodiment of conjugal fidelity.

Flat character caricature
Flat Character: Caricature


A satirical exaggeration

of certain features; grotesque.


Gulliver's Travels by Jonathan Swift

Character dynamics motivation
Character Dynamics: Motivation

Characters’ actions and changes within characters occur as a result of particular reasons behind their behaviour.

Motivation is the driving force behind a character’s actions which the reader needs to pinpoint in order to understand the character (understanding does not mean approval or disapproval).

Characters questions

  • Are Miranda and Frederick flat or round characters?

  • How does Fowles make Frederick’s and Miranda’s accounts sound “real”?

  • Miranda is talented, why is she unable to draw either Frederick or GP? Is physical appearance important in the novel?

  • Is Frederick “asexual”? What are his motivations? Explain your view.

  • 6. Why is Miranda’s “speaking part” longer?

  • Who are the minor characters? How would the novel be different without them?