Group Activity : Designing a Plan to Reconstruct the Union after the Civil War - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Group Activity : Designing a Plan to Reconstruct the Union after the Civil War

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  1. Group Activity: Designing a Plan to Reconstruct the Union after the Civil War

  2. Reconstruction (1865 to 1877) • Reconstruction is the era after the Civil War when the U.S. gov’t: • Brought the seceded Southern states back into the Union • Ended slavery & tried to protect newly emancipated slaves • Rebuilt the nation after more than four years of fighting

  3. Reconstruction: 1865-1877 • Reconstruction occurred in 2 phases: • Presidential Reconstruction (1865-67) was lenient in order to allow Southern states to quickly rejoin the Union; It was initiated by President Lincoln but carried out by President Andrew Johnson

  4. Reconstruction: 1865-1877 • Reconstruction occurred in 2 phases: • Congressional Reconstruction (1867-77) was directed by Radical Republicans in Congress who wanted a stricter plan that protected the rights of former slaves & kept Confederate leaders from regaining power in the South

  5. Lincoln’s Reconstruction Plan In his 2nd inaugural address, Lincoln promised a Reconstruction Plan for the Union with “malice towards none & charity for all” • Before the Civil War came to an end (& before his death), Lincoln proposed his Ten-Percent Plan • This plan was very lenient & allowed former Confederate states could re-enter the Union when: • 10% of its population swore an oath of loyalty to the USA • States ratified the 13th Amendment ending slavery

  6. Lincoln’s Reconstruction Plan • Radical Republicans in Congress rejected Lincoln’s plan because: • It did nothing to protect ex-slaves or to keep Confederate leaders from regaining power in the South • Wanted 50% of state populations to swear an oath of loyalty • When the Civil War ended & Lincoln was assassinated in 1865, there was no Reconstruction Plan in place

  7. Presidential Reconstruction • When Lincoln was assassinated in 1865 VP Andrew Johnson tried to continue Lincoln’s policies: • His Presidential Reconstruction plan was lenient towards Southerners • States could come back into the USA once they ratified the 13th Amendment

  8. Presidential Reconstruction • Johnson’s Reconstruction plan hoped to quickly re-unify the nation • But, this plan did not require strict regulations to protect former slaves • Southern states passed black codes to keep African-Americans from gaining land, jobs, voting rights, & protection under the law • Johnson pardoned 13,000 ex-Confederates

  9. Presidential Reconstruction • Led by Thaddeus Stevens, many “radical” Republicans in Congress opposed Johnson’s plan & pushed for laws to protect African-Americans: • Created the Freedman’s Bureau • Pushed for the 14th Amendment

  10. The Freedman’s Bureau • The Freedman’s Bureau was established in 1865 to offer assistance to former slaves & protect their new citizenship: • Provided emergency food, housing, medical supplies • Promised “40 acres & a mule” • Supervised labor contracts • Created new schools

  11. The Role of Freedman’s Bureau Agents Many former abolitionists moved South to help freedmen, called “carpetbaggers” by Southern Democrats

  12. A Freedman’s Bureau School

  13. Historically Black Colleges in the South The emphasis on education led to the creation of black universities, such as Morehouse College in Atlanta

  14. The 14th Amendment • Congress feared Johnson would allow violations of civil rights so it drafted the 14th Amendment: • Clarified the idea of citizenship to include former slaves • All citizens were entitled to equal protection under the law & cannot bedeprived of life, liberty, property without due process of law • Tennessee was the only Southern state to accept the amendment

  15. Presidential Reconstruction • President Johnson opposed these new protections because he felt it would slow reconstruction: • Johnson vetoed the Freedman’s Bureau bill & encouraged Southern states to not support the 14th Amendment • This backfired when Republicans increased their control of Congress in the 1866 elections

  16. With a dominance in Congress, moderate & “radical” Republicans took control & began “Congressional Reconstruction” in 1867: • Did not recognize the state gov’ts approved under Johnson’s Plan • Made Reconstruction more strict

  17. Congressional Reconstruction • The Reconstruction Act of 1867 required that any Confederate state that wanted to re-enter the Union had to: • Ratify the 14th Amendment • Allow African-American men the right to vote in their states • Keep Confederate leaders from returning to power

  18. Created 5 military districts to protect former slaves & to enforce reconstruction

  19. Johnson’s Impeachment (1868) • President Johnson obstructed Congressional Reconstruction: • He fired military generals appointed by Congress to oversee Southern military zones • He violated a new law called the Tenure of Office Act when he tried to fire his Secretary of War who supported Congress’ plan

  20. Radical Republicans used this as an opportunity to impeach the president • To impeach is to formally charge an elected official of wrongdoing • The House of Representatives voted 126-47 to impeach Johnson

  21. After an 11 week trial, the Senate fell 1 vote short of removing the president from office Johnson argued that removal could only occur due to “high crimes & misdemeanors” but no “crime” had been committed But…Johnson did promise to enforce Reconstruction for the remainder of his term…& he did!

  22. The Senate trial of Johnson’s impeachment was the hottest ticket in town

  23. In 1868, Civil War hero Ulysses Grant won the presidency & worked with Congress to reconstruct the South: • By 1868, most Confederate states had been re-admitted to the Union under Congressional Reconstruction • Under Grant, the last would re-enter

  24. Because of Congressional Reconstruction, African-American men in the South could vote for the first time

  25. Re-Admission of the South

  26. In 1870, the 15th Amendment gave black men the right to vote • Prohibited any state from denying men the right to vote due to race • But…the amendment said nothing about literacy tests, poll taxes, & property qualifications

  27. Conclusions • As a result of Congressional Reconstruction (1867-1877): • All eleven Southern states were re-admitted into the Union • The 13th, 14th, & 15th Amendments provided protection & opportunity for African-Americans in the South • But, this was difficult to enforce & sustain as Democrats slowly took back control of Southern states