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Date____ Page___ Title: Nationalism in India Warm-up : Throughout history, when groups of people have been discontent with the government, what are some of the ways they have attempted to make changes?. Indian Nationalism Grows

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Date____ Page___Title: Nationalism in IndiaWarm-up: Throughout history, when groups of people have been discontent with the government, what are some of the ways they have attempted to make changes?

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Indian Nationalism Grows

  • Hindu Indian National Congress and Muslim League formed to rid India of foreign rule
  • WWI: British gov’t promised reforms that would lead to self-gov’t, yet Indian troops who returned home from war were once again treated as second-class citizens
  • Radical nationalists carried out acts of violence – British passed the Rowlatt Acts in 1919 to curb dissent (allowed gov’t to jail protestors w/out trial for as long as 2 years)

Sir Sidney Rowlatt

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In protest of Rowlatt Acts, 10,000 Hindus and Muslims went to Amritsar in spring 1919.

  • Most people went to fast and pray; gov’t thought they were defying ban on public meetings (which most people were unaware of)
  • British commander ordered troops to fire on the crowd without warning.
  • 400 killed; 1,200 wounded
  • Indians began demanding independence

Amritsar

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Gandhi’s Tactics of Nonviolence

  • Mohandas Gandhi – also known as Mahatma (“great soul”)
  • Pioneer of satyagraha—resistance to tyrannythrough mass civil disobedience
  • First employed non-violent civil disobediencewhile a lawyer in South Africa, during the resident Indian community's struggle for civil rights
  • Returned to India in 1915; organized protests by peasants, farmers, and urban laborers concerning excessive land-tax and discrimination.
  • 1921 - assumed leadership of the Indian National Congress; led nationwide campaigns to ease poverty, expand women's rights, build religious and ethnic harmony, end untouchability, and increase economic self-reliance.
  • Above all, he aimed to achieve Swaraj, or the independence of India from foreign domination.
  • Gandhi famously led his followers in the non-cooperation movement that protested the British-imposed salt tax with the 240-mile Dandi Salt March in 1930.
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India:

Defying the Crown