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AP US History Spring 2009
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  1. Teddy Roosevelt and Howard Taft AP US History Spring 2009

  2. TR’s Introduction • Long record of public service + war hero = • McKinley picks TR as his running mate for his 2nd term in office • Assassination makes TR president

  3. TR and the “Bully Pulpit” • Command attention • Persuasion • Lead Congress

  4. TR and the Trusts: Regulation to Avert Socialism • Sherman Anti-Trust Law (1890) • 1897-1904: 4227 Companies combined to form 257 corporations • US Steel = Carnegie + 8 major competitors (2/3 of the market) • TR’s Position: “Good Trusts v. Bad Trusts”

  5. TR’s “Good Trusts v. Bad Trusts”

  6. TR as “Trust Buster” • US v. Northern Securities (1904): • precedent setting; first successful prosecution of big business under Sherman Act • led to other actions taken against Std Oil and the ATC • Strengthened the ICC through the Elkins and Hepburn Acts (1903 and 1906) • Intervened in Coal Strike of 1902: also a precedent

  7. TR’s Square Deal for Consumers • “Square Deal” was campaign slogan for 1904 • Meat Inspection Act (1906) • Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)

  8. 1904 Presidential Election Results

  9. TR’s and Conservation: His most important Domestic Legacy? • TR an Avid sportsman and naturalist • Natural Environment not Inexhaustible • TR sets aside 150 million acres • Convened Governor’s Conference on conservation in 1908

  10. TR’s Conservation Record • 51 Federal Bird Reservations • 4 National Game Preserves • 5 National Parks • 18 National Monuments • 24 Reclaimation Projects • 7 Conservation Conferences and Commissions

  11. Panama Canal • "No single great material work which remains to be undertaken on this continent, is as of such consequence to the American people." --Roosevelt

  12. Panama Canal • US Motives? Travel and Trade • 1902, US bought rights to land from French for $40 million • Columbia and US fight for Panama, US gets it and Panama is declared an independent country in 1903 • As usual, the US took on a “parent role” over Panama and construction for the canal begun • Opened in 1914

  13. Election of 1908 • Roosevelt pledged not to seek a 3rd term, • “My Policies” • wanted successor to continue • Chose Sec. of War, William Howard Taft • Dems choose Bryan (again!) • Socialist party nominates Eugene V. Debs

  14. Election of 1908 Bryan Taft Debs in 1918

  15. Election of 1908 • Campaign was dull— • Taft’s strategy was to associate himself w/ Roosevelt • Bryan’s strategy: “TR stole my policies!” • Deb’s strategy: “Workers unite!” • Results: Taft, 321 EV (7678908); Bryan, 162 EV (6409104); Debs (420793)

  16. 1908 Presidential Election Results

  17. Roosevelt’s Legacy? • Curbed Capitalism enough • Created the “Modern Presidency” • Opened America’s Eyes to the World

  18. Taft in Office: The Man • Real desire was NOT President, but as a Supreme Court Justice • More conservative than Progressive • Poor judge of public opinion • Chronic victim of “foot in the mouth disease”

  19. Taft’s New Tub (after he got stuck). For reference, look at the little boy in background as a reference to scale.

  20. Taft’s Policies and Problems • The Tariff • Republican Platform called for “revision,” Taft came out for reducing the tariff • Calls special session of Congress (3/09) • Taft Signs it, then went on tour to defend it

  21. Taft’s Policies and Problems • Conservation Woes • Secretary of the Interior Ballinger v. Gifford Pinchot • Taft backs Ballinger, against public opinion

  22. Pinchot v. Ballinger

  23. Taft’s Policies and Problems • Liberal Republicans Rebel • Successful effort with Democrats to break Speaker Joseph Cannon in the House • Elkins Act (1910) passed, strengthens the ICC • TR returns from Africa– what?!? • Congressional Elections: • 228 (D) to 161 (R)- House • 51 (D) to 41 (D)- Senate

  24. TR in Africa

  25. Election of 1912 • Republican Party Splits! • Roosevelt mad at Taft • Taft fights back! • Taft wins nomination at the national convention

  26. Election of 1912 • Democrats choose Woodrow Wilson • President of Princeton University • Has a PHd • Former Governor of NJ • Won the Convention with Bryan’s support

  27. Election of 1912 • Roosevelt Loses Rep. nomination to Taft • TR “steals” the Progressive (Bull Moose) Party nomination • and splits the Republican vote!

  28. 1912 Election Results

  29. Election of 1912 • Wilson: 435 (6,293, 454) • Roosevelt: 88 (4,119, 538) • Taft: 8 (3,484, 980) • Debs: 0 (900, 672)