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Chapter 14
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  1. Chapter 14 Managing and Troubleshooting Windows 2000

  2. You Will Learn… • About the Windows NT/2000/XP boot process • How to troubleshoot the Windows 2000 boot process • How to use maintenance and troubleshooting tools to support Windows 2000 A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  3. Understanding the Windows NT/ 2000/XP Boot Process • BIOS executes POST • BIO executes the MBR program • MBR program executes OS boot program • Boot program executes Ntldr • Ntldr changes processor mode and loads a file system A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  4. Understanding the Windows NT/ 2000/XP Boot Process (continued) • Ntldr reads and loads the boot loader menu • Ntldr uses Ntdetect.com • Ntldr loads the OS and device drivers • Ntldr passes control to Ntoskrnl.exe • An operating system other thanWindows NT/2000/XP is chosen A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  5. The Windows NT/2000/XP Boot Process A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  6. The Windows NT/2000/XP Boot Process (continued) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  7. Files Needed to BootWindows NT/2000/XP A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  8. Customizing the Windows NT/ 2000/XP Boot Process • Use boot.ini file, which has two main sections • [boot loader] • [operating system] A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  9. Changing Boot.ini Settings A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  10. Changing Boot.ini Settings (continued) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  11. Troubleshooting the Windows 2000 Boot Process • Try the simple things first • Determine at what point in the process the system fails • Use troubleshooting tools • Advanced Options menu • Recovery Console • Emergency repair disk A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  12. Advanced Options Menu A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  13. Recovery Console • Use it when OS does not start properly or hangs during the load • Allows repair of damaged registry, system files, or file system on the hard drive • A command-driven OS that does not use a GUI; • Allows access to FAT16, FAT32, and NTFS file systems A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  14. Using Recovery Console A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  15. Using Recovery Console (continued) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  16. Commands Available from Recovery Console A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  17. Commands Available from Recovery Console (continued) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  18. Commands Available from Recovery Console (continued) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  19. Using the Recovery Console to Restore the Registry A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  20. Using the Recovery Console to Restore the Registry (continued) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  21. Emergency Repair Process:The Last Resort • Restores system to state it was in immediately after the Windows 2000 installation • All changes since installation are lost • Uses an Emergency Repair Disk (ERD) • Contains information about current installation, but not a copy of the registry • Points to a folder on the hard drive where the registry was backed up at installation A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  22. Emergency Repair Process (continued) • Use the Backup window to back up the registry and create an emergency repair disk • Create an ERD and back up the registry to the hard drive A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  23. Tools for Maintenance and Troubleshooting • Backup tool • Windows 2000 support tools (eg, Dependency Walker) • Windows File Protection (WFP) • Computer Management window • Disk Management tool • Microsoft Management Console (MMC) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  24. Tools for Maintenance and Troubleshooting (continued) • Event Viewer • Task Manager • System Monitor • Dr. Watson and memory dumps • Windows Update A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  25. Windows Support Tools A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  26. Windows File Protection • Protects system files (.sys, .dll, .ttf, .ocs, or .exe) from modification • Two tools • Background process that notifies WFP when a protected file is modified • SFC (System File Checker) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  27. Using SFC A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  28. Computer Management Window • Consolidates several administrative tools used to: • Monitor problems with hardware, software, security • Share folders • View device configurations • Add new device drivers • Start and stop services • Manage server applications A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  29. Disk Management Tool • Found in Computer Management console • Used to create partitions on basic disks or volumes on dynamic disks and to convert a basic disk to a dynamic disk • Graphical, user-friendly • Replaces Fdisk in older Windows OSs A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  30. Using Disk Management A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  31. Microsoft Management Console • Console • Combination of several administrative tools into a single window (eg, Computer Management, Recovery Console) • Snap-ins • Individual tools within the console (eg, Event Viewer, System Information) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  32. Available Snap-ins for MMC A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  33. Available Snap-ins for MMC (continued) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  34. Creating a Customized Console A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  35. Event Viewer • Logs • Application log • Security log • System log • Types of events recorded in system and application logs • Information events • Warning events • Error events A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  36. Event Viewer (continued) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  37. Ways to Filter Events • Use log properties • Set a size limit and specify what is to happen when log reaches its limit A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  38. Filtering Events with Log Properties A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  39. Performance Monitoring and Optimization • Analyze data provided by monitoring tools such as Task Manager and System Monitor • Determine areas in which performance is below baseline • Identify and take steps to correct the problem A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  40. Principles for Optimizing Performance • Establish a baseline • If you add RAM, increase size of paging file • Consider upgrading more than one component • Applications are assigned priority level, which determines position in queue for CPU resources • In general, upgrading an existing PC is recommended A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  41. Task Manager • Allows you to view: • Applications and processes running on the computer • Performance information for processor and memory • Ways to access • Ctrl+Alt+Delete • Right-click blank area on taskbar; select Task Manager on shortcut menu • Ctrl+Shift+Esc A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  42. Task Manager Tabs • Applications • Running or Not Responding • Processes • Lists system services and other processes associated with applications, with how much CPU time and memory the process uses • Performance • Totals • Physical Memory • Commit Charge • Kernel Memory A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  43. Performance Tab in Task Manager A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  44. System Monitor • Provides more system performance detail than Task Manager • Components • Objects (hardware or software system components; eg, Memory, Paging File, Processor, Physical Disk) • Instances (multiples of objects) • Counters (show information on specific characteristics of an object) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  45. Using System Monitor A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  46. Using System Monitor (continued) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  47. Dr. Watson and Memory Dumps • Dr. Watson • Debugs errors in applications by recording error events to a log file (Drwtsn32.log) when illegal operations occur • Memory dump • Saves contents of memory at the time an error halted the system to a dump file A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  48. Windows Update • Uses Microsoft Web site to download patches, fixes, and updates to Microsoft OSs and applications • Uses ActiveX to scan the system, find device drivers and system files, and compare these files to those on the Windows Update server; • Offers option of selecting files for download A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  49. Summary • Details of Windows NT/2000/XP boot process • How to troubleshoot Windows 2000 boot process • Supporting and troubleshooting Windows 2000 after it boots, including problems you might have with system errors and performance A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition