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Pollination

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  1. Pollination

  2. Pollination

  3. Important Terms • Pollination – transfer of pollen • Self or cross • Fertilization – union of ♂ & ♀(ovule) nuclei • Fruiting – development of fleshy part around zygote • Seed dispersal – distribution of mature seeds from parent

  4. Flower Anatomy Pollination= Pollen transfer stigma style Connor photo Fertilization = nuclei union petals sepals

  5. Flower variation • Flowers may have pollen • Ripening w/ ovules or before • On anthers below flowers or outside • Flowers may be staminate (pollen only) or pistillate (ovule but no pollen) • Plants may be monoecious (2 flower types) • Corn (tassel at top = pollen; silk at ear =stigma) • Plants may be dioecious (♀& ♂ plants) • Holly trees may have berries (♀) or pollen flowers (♂)

  6. Pollinators • Wind • Water • Animals • insects birds • mammals monkeys • spiders bats • kangaroos mites • humans • + others

  7. Human as pollinators • Hand applied pollen • dates (since agriculture began) • vanilla • Greenhouses (using vibrating toothbrushes) • Apply temporary aids • pollen inserts • bouquets • No ‘solution-in-a-bottle’ yet

  8. Insect Pollination • ants flies/midges • aphids mosquitoes • beetles moths • butterflies thrips • bees wasps • + many others The Big 3 underlined

  9. Insect-pollinated Flowers • Produce lots of pollen • Secrete sweet smelling, sugary nectar • Come in colors • Grow at conspicuous locations on plant • Feature broken patterns • Wave in the wind

  10. Bee Pollination 4 widely used bees in commercial pollination Bumble BeeHoney Bee Alkali Bee Leafcutting Bee ALSO: BOB (blue orchard bee); hornfaced bee, carpenter bee; pollen bees

  11. Managing Colonies for Pollination • Queenright • Forager bee strong • Expanding brood population • Limited super space • Minimum strength • No swarming • Dry & in sun • Distributed in crop • Moved in & out promptly

  12. How many? • Varies w/ crop • Varies w/ beekeeper • 75%+ col minimum strength • For example cucumber in eastern US • 1 col for every 3-4 acres (small fields near woods) • 1-3 col/acre (larger fields in agricultural area) • 2 col/acre (high density) • 1 bee/100 flowers • 1 col/50,000 plants (w/ appropriate ♂/♀ ratio)

  13. Pollination Contracts • Number & strength of colonies • Plan of colony distribution • Time of delivery and removal • Beekeepers right of entry • Degree of protection from pesticides • Plan for payment(s) • Penalities for poor colonies/service • Bonus for excellent service

  14. Pollination • 4 “major” crops • Alfalfa seed • Almond • Fruits apples, berries, etc) • Vegetables (+ seeds) • Over 90 crops • Value . $14 billion annually • 1/3rd of our diet from bee pollinated crops • Increasing, not diminishing, demand

  15. Fruit trees • Traditional rental income • Pears • Apples • Cherries • others • Early bloom in season – set of ‘king’ bloom • Bees often insurance for bad weather year • Other fruit major nectar source • citrus

  16. Pollination Poor Pollination Desired Pollination

  17. References: Images: http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3400/3573675917_ace3fc0e28.jpg?v=0 http://www.bio.miami.edu/muchhala/Bat-Flower%20Photos/A_geo_Meriania.jpg http://williamthecoroner.files.wordpress.com/2009/05/bumblebee-onpavement.jpg http://sarahmeyerwalsh.files.wordpress.com/2008/06/honeybee.jpghttp:/ www.everythingabout.net/articles/biology/animals/arthropods/insects/bees/leafcutting_bee/ http://www.jimirving.com/images/galleries/beeboxes-3.jpg http://www.biology-blog.com/images/blogs/10-2006/Pollinator-2-Raspberry.jpg http://biology.unm.edu/ccouncil/Biology_203/Images/FloweringPlants/Angiolifecycle.jpeg http://www.maine.gov/agriculture/pi/images/bee.jpg http://www.plantstogrow.com/botany/fact_pages/images_2/anther-02crcm.jpg http://www.northernimages.com/photos/242820235_n5tsi-M.jpg http://208.113.167.239/wp-content/uploads/2007/06/bee-cherry-blossoms.jpg http://www.ojibway.ca/p_leucop.jpg http://illinois.sierraclub.org/calumet/Species/GrassPinkOrchid.jpg www.gettyimages.com