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  1. Pollination

  2. Parts of a Flower

  3. What is Pollination

  4. Pollen Transfer

  5. Pollen Germination

  6. Modes of Pollination • Self pollination • Wind • Grasses, Willows, Birch • Water • Animal

  7. Coevolution

  8. Pollination Syndromes

  9. Pollinators • Bees • Flies • Wasps • Butterflies • Moths • Beetles • Humingbirds • Bats

  10. Why do Animals Pollinate Plants?

  11. Type of Pollinator

  12. Pollination Critical to Plants

  13. Bees as Pollinators

  14. Bees as Pollinators

  15. Butterflies as Pollinators

  16. Flies as Pollinators

  17. Beetles as Pollinators

  18. Moths as Pollinators

  19. Hummingbirds as Pollinators

  20. Bats as Pollinators

  21. Odd Pollinators

  22. Special Attraction Mechanisms

  23. Major Threats to Pollinators • Habitat Loss, Degradation, and Fragmentation • Agriculture, resource extraction, and urban and suburban development • Non-native Species and Diseases • Shrubs such as autumn olive and multiflora rose take over open fields, they crowd out the wildflowers needed by certain butterfly and bee species for pollen, nectar, or larval food • Japanese barberry shades out native spring ephemerals like Dutchman’s breeches, which provide food for early spring bumble bees • Non-native plants also attract pollinators away from native species that are superior food sources • West Virginia white butterflies sometimes lay their eggs on non-native garlic mustard instead of native toothwort, for example, and the young caterpillars fail to thrive • Competition: 30 exotic bees known to inhabit North America

  24. Major Threats to Pollinators • Introduced parasites and diseases are still another threat to pollinators • Mite and virus species that have severely compromised honey bee colonies. • Unintended changes • White-tailed deer numbers have increased over the years, due in part to the fragmentation of forest habitat into the open areas they prefer. • Deer browse removes understory vegetation that caterpillar larvae and other pollinators depend upon • Deer often preferentially feed on native shrubs such as spicebush, the host plant of the spicebush swallowtail caterpillar, while avoiding thorny non-native bushes like Japanese barberry

  25. Major Threats to Pollinators • Air pollution is a very real problem for bees and other pollinators that rely on scent trails to find flowers • Light pollution can harm moth pollinators by increasing their susceptibility to predation by bats or birds when they are attracted to artificial lights at night

  26. Major Threats to Pollinators • Pesticide misuse and drift from aerial spraying, especially spraying with so-called persistent chemicals that remain in the environment for a long time before degrading • Systemic insecticides applied to seeds can contaminate the pollen grains that are an essential source of food for bees and their young. Pesticides often kill directly, but sub-lethal amounts can also be detrimental to bees and other pollinators by impeding their ability to navigate or forage

  27. Major Threats to Pollinators • Climate change • Flowering plants migrating north or to cooler, higher elevation habitat in response to warming temperatures or other changes may not move in sync with their pollinators. • The composition of pollinator communities is expected to change

  28. CCD stands for Colony Collapse Disorder • Infectious disease affecting managed European honey bees (Apismellifera) in commercial beekeeping operations across the United States • CCD has resulted in losses of 50 to 90% of managed colonies in U.S. beekeeping operations during the past several years. • Colony mortality averaging 45%.

  29. No one is clear why there is a sudden die-off of honey bee colonies • Chemical residue/contamination in the wax, food stores, and bees • Pathogens or parasites in the bees and brood • Stress to the bees and brood • Lack of genetic and lineage diversity in bees

  30. Sources •