Pollination 6th grade science
What is Pollination • Pollination: the transfer of pollen from the anther of one flower to the stigma of another flower. • Fertilization: occurs when the sperm in the pollen unites with an egg. • Brainpop: Pollination
Why is Pollination important? • Pollination is how plants reproduce and continue to exist. • At least 80% of our world's crop plant species require pollination. • It is estimated that 1 out of every 3rd bite of food comes to us through the work of animal pollinators. Click here to see where your favorite food comes from
Purpose of the flower • To attract pollinators with colorful petals, scent, nectar and pollen • Remember – plants are rooted in place. They cannot move.
Pollen • Yellow powder. • Fertilizes the eggs. • The shape and form of pollen is related to its method of pollination… • Insect-pollinated specieshave sticky of barbedpollen grains • Wind-pollinated speciesis lightweight, small andsmooth (corn pollen)
Pollinators • Since flowers can't move, they need to be able to attract pollinators or be built so that wind is able to pollinate them. • Pollinators • Wind • Bees • Butterflies & moths • Flies, beetles & insects • Birds • Bats • Flowers attract pollinators with sweet nectar, bright colors, and shapes and structures. • Some flowers open at special times to attract pollinators such as night blooming plants that are pollinated by bats.
Wind • Most conifers and about 12% of the world’s flowering plants are wind-pollinated including grasses , the cereal crops; many trees; and ragweed. • Small flowers with no bright colors, special odors, or nectar; Most have no petals • Release great amounts of pollen so that some pollen reaches stigma of other plants. • Large amount of pollen that is smooth, light, easily airborne; • Stigma feathery to catch pollen from wind • Hay fever is being allergic to the pollen in the air
Bees • They live on and depend on the nectar and pollen for food. • Bees are guided by sight andsmell • Bees can see honey guides on flowers which are not visible to humans. • See yellow and blue colors,also ultraviolet light (not red – it appears dull to them) • Prefer cup shaped flowers that have landing pads. • Pollinate during the day.
Butterflies and moths • Butterflies have a good color vision but poor sense of smell • Butterflies can see bright colors like red, orange, and purple • Flowers are usually shaped as a long tube because of insect’sproboscis – to get nectar • Moth have a good sense of smell & pollinate at night. Flowers are usually white or pale and dull (red, purple, or pink) with sweet, strong odor.
Flies , beetles & insects • Flies have a good sense of smell and good vision. • Flies like rotten smells and pale to dark colors (dull brown or purple) • Beetles have good vision and a good sense of smell. • Beetles pollinate flowersthat are dull in color (dull white or green), but have very strong odor
Birds • Birds have a good senseof color, they like yellow orredflowers. • Birds do not have a goodsense of smell, so bird-pollinatedflowers usually have little odor. • Flowers provide fluid nectar ingreater quantities than insects • Hummingbirds use their long beak. • Pollen is large and sticky
Bats • Bats and are mammals • Bats pollinate at night,so flowers are open at night, white, and larger in size. • Bats prefer a strong, musty odor. • Flowers re bowl shaped.
Bees & Pollination • Bees are the most important pollinator. • Bees are responsible for 80% of all the pollination in the world. • Bee video • Examine your bee – • Why do you think the legs are so hairy? • How long are the legs? • What do you notice about the eyes? • Can you find the combs on the front legs?
Bee Facts • Honey bees have FIVE eyes! 3 small on top and 1 on each side of its head. Each eye has thousands of lenses. Bees can see ultraviolet light, which people can't. Because of this they can navigate, even on a cloudy day. Honey bees use the sun as a reference point and the time it takes them to reach the hive to figure out exactly how to tell other bees where to fly to new flowers. • Flowers make food for bees. Tiny bits of pollen get on their legs. They drink nectar from the flowers they visit. They make honey from the nectar. They use both honey and pollen as food. When they gather food, bees spread pollen from one flower to another. Bees help flowers make seed by putting pollen from one flower on the next.
How Pollination Happens • The bee goes to a flower in search of nectar to eat. • While the bee is there, the bee rubs against the anther and some pollen gets on his bee fur. • The bees goes to another flower for some more nectar. • While on that flower, some of the pollen sticks to the sticky stigma. • The pollen travels down the style into the ovary. • The pollen fertilizes the eggs in the ovary to form seeds. Pollination Song
Colony Collapse Disorder • What would happen if the bees disappeared? Bees in Danger
Flower book Front Cover
NameDate Period Stamen – male part (anther & filament) Anther – makes pollen Pollen – yellow powder fertilizes eggs Pistil – female part (stigma, style, & ovary) Stigma – sticky, catches pollen Style – tube that pollen travels down Ovary – contains eggs Inside Left
Inside Right Pollination Fertilization 1 6 3 Photosynthesis The bee goes to a flower in search of nectar to eat. 2 5 The bee goes to another flower for some more nectar. The pollen fertilizes the eggs in the ovary to form seeds. 4 The pollen travels down the style into the ovary. While the bee is there, the bee rubs against the anther and some pollen gets on his bee fur. While on that flower, some of the pollen sticks to the sticky stigma.
Inside Right Under leaves Pollination: the transfer of pollen from the anther of one flower to the stigma of another flower. Fertilization: occurs when the sperm in the pollen unites with an egg. Photosynthesis: plants make their own food; Need: water, light, carbon dioxide. Make glucose (sugar) & oxygen