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Pollination. Pollination. Important Terms. Pollination – transfer of pollen Self or cross Fertilization – union of ♂ & ♀ (ovule) nuclei Fruiting – development of fleshy part around zygote Seed dispersal – distribution of mature seeds from parent. Flower Anatomy. Pollination=

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important terms
Important Terms
  • Pollination – transfer of pollen
    • Self or cross
  • Fertilization – union of ♂ & ♀(ovule) nuclei
  • Fruiting – development of fleshy part around zygote
  • Seed dispersal – distribution of mature seeds from parent
flower anatomy
Flower Anatomy

Pollination=

Pollen transfer

stigma

style

Connor photo

Fertilization = nuclei union

petals

sepals

flower variation
Flower variation
  • Flowers may have pollen
    • Ripening w/ ovules or before
    • On anthers below flowers or outside
  • Flowers may be staminate (pollen only) or pistillate (ovule but no pollen)
  • Plants may be monoecious (2 flower types)
    • Corn (tassel at top = pollen; silk at ear =stigma)
  • Plants may be dioecious (♀& ♂ plants)
    • Holly trees may have berries (♀) or pollen flowers (♂)
pollinators
Pollinators
  • Wind
  • Water
  • Animals
    • insects birds
    • mammals monkeys
    • spiders bats
    • kangaroos mites
    • humans
    • + others
human as pollinators
Human as pollinators
  • Hand applied pollen
    • dates (since agriculture began)
    • vanilla
  • Greenhouses (using vibrating toothbrushes)
  • Apply temporary aids
    • pollen inserts
    • bouquets
  • No ‘solution-in-a-bottle’ yet
insect pollination
Insect Pollination
  • ants flies/midges
  • aphids mosquitoes
  • beetles moths
  • butterflies thrips
  • bees wasps
  • + many others

The Big 3 underlined

insect pollinated flowers
Insect-pollinated Flowers
  • Produce lots of pollen
  • Secrete sweet smelling, sugary nectar
  • Come in colors
  • Grow at conspicuous locations on plant
  • Feature broken patterns
  • Wave in the wind
bee pollination
Bee Pollination

4 widely used bees in commercial pollination

Bumble BeeHoney Bee Alkali Bee Leafcutting Bee

ALSO: BOB (blue orchard bee); hornfaced bee, carpenter bee; pollen bees

managing colonies for pollination
Managing Colonies for Pollination
  • Queenright
  • Forager bee strong
  • Expanding brood population
  • Limited super space
  • Minimum strength
  • No swarming
  • Dry & in sun
  • Distributed in crop
  • Moved in & out promptly
how many
How many?
  • Varies w/ crop
  • Varies w/ beekeeper
  • 75%+ col minimum strength
    • For example cucumber in eastern US
      • 1 col for every 3-4 acres (small fields near woods)
      • 1-3 col/acre (larger fields in agricultural area)
      • 2 col/acre (high density)
      • 1 bee/100 flowers
      • 1 col/50,000 plants (w/ appropriate ♂/♀ ratio)
pollination contracts
Pollination Contracts
  • Number & strength of colonies
  • Plan of colony distribution
  • Time of delivery and removal
  • Beekeepers right of entry
  • Degree of protection from pesticides
  • Plan for payment(s)
  • Penalities for poor colonies/service
  • Bonus for excellent service
pollination14
Pollination
  • 4 “major” crops
    • Alfalfa seed
    • Almond
    • Fruits apples, berries, etc)
    • Vegetables (+ seeds)
  • Over 90 crops
  • Value . $14 billion annually
  • 1/3rd of our diet from bee pollinated crops
  • Increasing, not diminishing, demand
fruit trees
Fruit trees
  • Traditional rental income
    • Pears
    • Apples
    • Cherries
    • others
  • Early bloom in season – set of ‘king’ bloom
  • Bees often insurance for bad weather year
  • Other fruit major nectar source
    • citrus
pollination16
Pollination

Poor Pollination

Desired Pollination

references
References:

Images:

http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3400/3573675917_ace3fc0e28.jpg?v=0

http://www.bio.miami.edu/muchhala/Bat-Flower%20Photos/A_geo_Meriania.jpg

http://williamthecoroner.files.wordpress.com/2009/05/bumblebee-onpavement.jpg

http://sarahmeyerwalsh.files.wordpress.com/2008/06/honeybee.jpghttp:/

www.everythingabout.net/articles/biology/animals/arthropods/insects/bees/leafcutting_bee/

http://www.jimirving.com/images/galleries/beeboxes-3.jpg

http://www.biology-blog.com/images/blogs/10-2006/Pollinator-2-Raspberry.jpg

http://biology.unm.edu/ccouncil/Biology_203/Images/FloweringPlants/Angiolifecycle.jpeg

http://www.maine.gov/agriculture/pi/images/bee.jpg

http://www.plantstogrow.com/botany/fact_pages/images_2/anther-02crcm.jpg

http://www.northernimages.com/photos/242820235_n5tsi-M.jpg

http://208.113.167.239/wp-content/uploads/2007/06/bee-cherry-blossoms.jpg

http://www.ojibway.ca/p_leucop.jpg

http://illinois.sierraclub.org/calumet/Species/GrassPinkOrchid.jpg

www.gettyimages.com