Global Citizenship Citizenship rich and citizenship poor in Australia and the EU
Media framing and citizenship • Issues of citizenship enter the public domain in times of stress • Migrant groups are focus of disquiet • The mantra of clashing civilizations is used to explain urban unrest • For media, urban unrest moves from France to Australia, much as fashion does.
France’s Intifada Televisions depicted flames from the “Muslim unrest” dangerously close to the Eiffel Tower. Isolated cries of “Allahu Akbar” and scenes of imams trying to calm crowds were highlighted as worrying signs of the times in “Frankistan.” Politicians and the media hinted that Islamist militants were partly to blame for the rampaging youths and nightly fire bombings. News dispatches with datelines such as Clichy-sous-Bois sounded like they were actually describing a “Baghdad-on-the-Seine.”(Heneghon)
What happened in Paris October 27 2005 Zyed Benna, 17, and Bouna Traouré, 15, electrocuted after being chased by police Text messages coordinate riots November 6 1400 vehicles torched November 8 State of Emergency declared November 14 100 vehicles only torched(normal)
Cronulla December 4 2005: “Lebs” attack Surfie group December 7 text message: This Sunday every Aussie in the shire get down to North Cronulla to support the leb and wog bashing day December 10 and 11: Rioting on beaches, and “Leb” reprisals in suburb December 17,18: NSW Gov supports heavy policing of beaches in Sydney and Newcastle – calls for people not to go to beach.
Reactions to rioting • Both in France and Australia (as elsewhere in Europe) there has been a strong reaction to such events • In France, the last election fought inter alia on immigration issues • In Australia, the next election will be: citizenship testing to be introduced.
Citizenship and the nation state • We need to distinguish a strong and a weaker sense of citizenship • Bare citizenship (under Geneva convention) passports, right to work, duty to pay tax • Cultural citizenship as ‘Identity generating and community building’ (Weiner, 1998)
Bare Citizenship • Citizenship rich • Legal situation has made two or more passports possible in the US and Australia • In the EU, all citizens have transnational citizenship rights • Citizenship poor • Refugees • Expatriate citizens of poorer countries who offer little consular protection
Cultural citizenship and media • Access to media has undermined national control of cultural citizenship • Arabic speakers in EU and in Australia have access to >39 Arabic language television programs, both national and transnational (Al Jazeera, Al Manar). • However real differences underlie similarities
Immigration: Australia and France Australia overwhelmingly immigrant 1950-2004 23.1% of population immigrant Citizenship awarded to 610 migrants /100,000pop in 1990s France 1950-2004 7.9% of population immigrant Citizenship awarded to 173 migrants /100,000pop in 1990s
Multiculturalism vs Assimilation Australia colonial (transnational) citizenship White Australia policy (accepted Maronites) until 1972 Multiculturalism France Citizenship assimilationist, in tradition of la patrie
Multiculturalism under pressure • When you come to Australia, you become Australian (Prime Minister, 12/02/06) • Multiculturalism is a reversion to tribalism that is anachronistic in a modern liberal urban society…. [It] has bred ethnic ghettos characterised by high levels of unemployment, welfare dependancy, welfare abuse, crime and violence (Windshuttle, 16/12/05)
Assimilation under pressure • EU context of transnational citizenship puts pressure on the French model • the multicultural self-understanding of the nations of citizens formed in classical countries of immigration.. is more instructive..than that derived from the culturally assimilationist French model (Habermas 2001:159-160).
Reislamisation in Paris Olivier Roy: Reislamisation is new form of individualised Islam, suited to disenfranchised youth. Unemployment 20-40% in suburbs such as Clichy-sous-Bois. Riots fuelled by French traditions of liberté, egalité, fraternité
Lakemba and the west Sydney’s western suburbs have been home to the post civil war group of Lebanese migrants, a group sharply distinguished from Maronites who came earlier High unemployment and radical Islamic clerics flourish in western suburbs
White ‘ghetto’ The idea of invasion is important in understanding what happened. The population centre of Sydney is Parramatta, which means that as many live to the west of there as towards the beaches. To enjoy the beach means that many from the working-class and ethnic west will come down to the beach suburbs. (Jupp, 2005)
Identity generating • Young rioters are French the rioters were unmistakably French, and not only because almost all were citizens. They have internalized French political values so well that they want France to live up to its promise of liberty, equality and fraternity. Their dream was not to overthrow the system, but to make it work so they could get ahead too. Political violence is as French as baguettes and berets. (Heneghon 2006)
Community building? • Lebanese are Australians, even to their very Australian style of rumbling on beaches An.. important social feature is the existence of a hoon culture, with young men believing that physical force is a sign of being a real Australian. This is usually combined with the even more dangerous belief that getting drunk is equally Australian. Although many Muslims are likely to avoid the second feature, they are susceptible to the first.(Jupp, 2005)
Hybrid citizenships • ‘The coexistence of rival ways of life in individual experience’ Beck • transnational and national media worlds • world view/mediascape which includes but is not limited by the nation state • The myth: a culturally homogeneous nation state