Key Ideas Rhetoric: counterpart [antistrophos] of dialectic. The skill allows one to • discover the available means of persuasion. • debate doubtful matters before a general audience.
Syllogisms and Enthymemes • Syllogism (major premise, minor premise, conclusion) • 1. All men are mortal. 2. Socrates is a man. 3. Therefore, Socrates is mortal. • Enthymemes: • Socrates is mortal because he’s a man. (major premise missing) • All men are mortal, so Socrates is a mortal. (minor premise missing)
Enthymemes • We can’t trust this man because he has lied to us in the past. • Major premise: ? • Minor premise: This man has lied to us in the past. • Conclusion: He cannot be trusted. • Because people who have lied in the past will continue to lie, we cannot trust this man.
Your Turn! • Create an enthymeme based on the following syllogisms: • All insects have six legs. The beetle has six legs. Therefore, the beetle is an insect. • All smokers have an increased risk of cancer. This woman smokes. Therefore, this woman has an increased risk of cancer.
Pisteis • ethos • pathos • logos
Occasions for Civic Rhetoric • Deliberative (future; assembly) • Bentsen vs. Quayle • Reagan’s Age • Forensic/Judicial (past; courts) • Spock defends Kirk • Any Matlock or Judge Judy • Epideictic (praise or blame; ceremonial) • Obama’s Eulogy for Ted Kennedy
Class Discussion 1/4 • What does style (lexis) mean for Aristotle and why does he object to the way it is taught by the sophists?
Class Discussion 2/4 • What are the virtues of good style? (include discussion of metaphor, frigidities, grammar, and rhythm).
Class Discussion 3/4 • What are the required parts of a speech?
Class Discussion 4/4 • How does Aristotle view the difference between written and spoken (extempore) discourse? (3.12)
Applications • Get into groups and apply Aristotle’s principles of rhetoric and style to address the following situation.
Toyota Recall • 2-minute speech for Toyota Motor Sales President & COO Jim Lentz to address recall. • Reassure car owners • Reassure stock holders • Salvage Toyota’s reputation • Youtube video