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Academic Biology Organic Compounds and Enzymes - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Academic Biology Organic Compounds and Enzymes. Goals 2.01, 2.02, 2.04. Cells are made of organic compounds. Organic compounds are made of three major elements, carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O). Other elements may be present, but these three are the most common.

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Presentation Transcript
cells are made of organic compounds
Cells are made of organic compounds.
  • Organic compounds are made of three major elements, carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O). Other elements may be present, but these three are the most common.
  • Carbon is the most important element because it can form covalent bonds with other carbon and with other elements.
  • Organic compounds are large molecules made of rings or chains of carbon atoms.
carbon
Carbon
  • Compounds found in organisms consist mainly of CARBON atoms that are joined together and arranged in chains or rings.
carbon s electrons
Carbon’s electrons
  • Carbon has 4 electrons in it’s outermost energy level
    • It can make 4 covalent bonds with other Carbon atoms or other elements.
    • Carbon can form single, double, and triple bonds
monomers and polymers and how they form
Monomers and Polymers and how they form.
  • The smallest organic molecule in an organic compound is called a monomer.
  • Monomers can be joined together to form larger organic molecules called polymers.
  • Monomers are joined by together by a process that removes water called a condensation reaction.
condensation reaction forms polymers
Condensation Reaction forms Polymers
  • Polymers are formed by removing water. We called it a condensation reaction.
hydrolysis breaks polymers
Hydrolysis breaks polymers.
  • Polymers are broken apart into monomers by adding water.
types of organic compounds common to organisms
Types of Organic Compounds common to Organisms.
  • All organisms contain 4 common organic compounds.
  • Carbohydrates
  • Proteins
  • Nucleic acids
  • Lipids
enzymes
Enzymes
  • Enzymes are
    • proteins
    • used to speed up reactions. (catalyst)
      • Lower activation energy
    • specific to the reactions they catalyze.
    • reusable.
activation energy
Activation Energy
  • The energy need to start a reaction.
    • For example a car needs a car battery to start.
enzymes1
Enzymes
  • What effects them and how?
    • Temperature
      • Optimal point, denatures when too hot or cold usually
    • pH
      • Optimal point, denatures when to acidic or basic usually
    • Concentration
      • As concentration increases so does reaction rate
  • Denature means the enzyme is broken and will no longer bind with the substrate.