AP Biology: Organic Compounds The Versatility of Carbon-The building blocks of life!
Why Carbon Compounds? (Why not another element? Bonding Properties 4 Covalent Bonds Endless possibilities!
Living Organisms and Carbon All life is built on Carbon 75% Water 25% Carbon compounds! Four Types: --Carbohydrates --Lipids --Proteins --Nucleic Acids
Hydrocarbons These are examples of hydrocarbons. -Hydrophobic -Stable -Very little attraction between molecules -Mostly gases at normal temperatures and pressures
Isomers Molecules with the same elements, but with different physical structures They have different chemical properties and can affect living systems in different ways.
Form Affects Function • Structural differences create important functional significance • Example: • medicines • L-version active • but not D-version • sometimes withtragic results…
Form Affects Function • Thalidomide • prescribed to pregnant women in 50s & 60s • reduced morning sickness, but… • stereoisomer caused severe birth defects
Functional Groups of Carbon Compounds • Parts of organic molecules that are involved in chemical reactions • give organic molecules distinctive properties • hydroxyl • amino • carbonyl • carboxyl • sulfhydryl • phosphate • methyl
Effects of Different Functional Groups • Basic structure of male & female hormones is identical • attachment of different functional groups interacts with different targets in the body—produces different effects!
Hydroxyl Group -OH Organic compounds with OH groups are called alcohols Names typically end in “ol” (example: ethanol)
Amino Group -NH2 Carbon compounds attached to NH2 are called amines --NH2 acts as a base and can easily pick up H+ ions Found in amino acids
Carbonyl Group Carbon double-bonded to oxygen May be in the middle or at the end of the carbon chain
Carboxyl Group Carbon is double-bonded to oxygen and single-bonded to a hydroxyl (OH) group. Compounds with a Carboxyl group (COOH) are acids. Examples: Amino Acids, Fatty Acids
Sulfhydryl Group -SH Carbon compound is bonded to a sulfur-hydrogen group. Compounds with sulfhydryl groups are called thiols. Sulfhydryl groups stabilize protein molecules.
Phosphate Group -PO4 Lots of oxygen=lots of negative charge! (Why?) Highly reactive group Transfers energy between organic molecules (ex: ATP)
Methyl Group CH3 May be attached to any carbon on a compound.