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Logistics: what is it?. ETF Seminar: ‘How to recruit and organise in the logistics sector?’ Run ö, Sweden 8-11 February 2009 Paula Hamilton, ITF hamilton_paula@itf.org.uk. What is Logistics?. The work of logistics Logistics in Central and Eastern Europe

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logistics what is it

Logistics: what is it?

ETF Seminar:

‘How to recruit and organise in the logistics sector?’

Runö, Sweden 8-11 February 2009

Paula Hamilton, ITF


what is logistics
What is Logistics?
  • The work of logistics
  • Logistics in Central and Eastern Europe
  • Main Actors in Logistics (in the region)
  • Gearing up to strengthen our unions

‘The work required to move and position inventory throughout the supply chain which serves to link and synchronise the overall supply chain as a continuous process and is essential for supply chain connectivity.’ (Bowersox et al, 2007)

  • Logistics is a subset of and occurs within the broader framework of supply chains.
  • Logistics activities occur within and between all companies active within supply chains.
  • The rise of logistics is driving restructuring across the whole transport sector
  • The ‘new’ logistics industry plays a vital role in the global economy.



Global Gateways: Container and Air Cargo

information and communication flows
Information and Communication Flows
  • Enable faster and more consistent communication within organisations and between corporate actors in supply chains
  • Enhances effective communication between logistics information systems and their physical operating environments
ict and logistics
ICT and Logistics
  • Customers demanding real time information
  • Used to reduce inventory, labour requirements and risk
  • Improve timing/speed
  • Increase reliability
  • Increase transparency in supply chains
ict systems
ICT Systems
  • Supply Chain Information Systems (SCIS) are responsible for linking all logistics activities into an integrated process
  • These have four major components:
    • Enterprise Resource Planning systems
    • Communication systems
    • Execution systems
    • Planning systems
information and communication technologies
Information and Communication Technologies
  • Types of ICT used
    • Bar coding and scanning
    • Global data synchronisation
    • The Internet
    • Satellite technology
    • Image processing
    • Extensible markup language
the work of logistics
The work of logistics
  • Order Processing
  • Inventory
  • Transport
  • Warehousing, Materials Handling and Packaging
  • Facility Network Design
order processing
Order Processing
  • Order preparation
  • Order transmittal
  • Order entry
  • Order filling
  • Order status reporting
  • Key customer interface
  • Raw materials
  • Work in process
  • Finished goods
  • Supplies
warehousing materials handling and packaging
Warehousing, Materials Handling and Packaging
  • Many types of warehousing
  • Traditional role has been to hold or store inventory but
  • Today many value added activities occur in such environments, operations focus on customisation, velocity and movement
  • Packaging serves to protect products during the logistics process
  • Materials handling involves receiving, moving, storing, sorting and assembling.
facility network design
Facility Network Design
  • A facility network is the number, size and geographical relationship of facilities used to perform logistical operations.
  • Include manufacturing plants, warehouses, cross-docks, ports and retail outlets.
  • Facility network design determines the number and location of all types of facilities used to perform logistics work
  • Facility networks are in a constant state of flux
  • These are the operations which geographically move and position inventory
  • Include road, rail, water, air and pipeline
  • Is the largest element of logistics costs
  • Reduces inventory, storage and materials handling
  • Transport’s role is becoming increasingly important in supply chains
logistics industry markets
Air Cargo


Contract Logistics

Finished Vehicle Logistics

Freight Forwarding


Express and Parcels




Road Haulage and Trucking

Service Parts Logistics

Temperature controlled logistics

Warehousing and property development

Information and Management Services


Logistics Industry: Markets
barriers between modes disappearing
Barriers Between Modes Disappearing
  • Singapore Based
  • Steamship Line
  • Terminal Operator
  • #3 US Whouse Co.,
  • Rail = Liner Trains
  • Deutsche Post World Net
  • Privatizing German Postal Service
  • DHL
  • Danzas
  • Airborne Express
  • Exel: #1 US Warehouse Co.
logistics in central and eastern europe
Logistics in Central and Eastern Europe
  • Fundamental changes in the logistics market in recent years
  • Production – ‘near sourcing’ in CEE
  • Growing consumer markets
  • Large LSPs – new models to serve clients
  • Few indigenous international companies operating on a global scale
  • Pattern in most CEE countries = strong local logistics presence serving the needs of small business + large TNC providers providing services for the international ‘incomers’
  • Possible restructuring with some CEE based companies grouping themselves together to provide services across the region
cee contract logistics market size and growth
CEE: Contract Logistics Market Size and Growth
  • 2007 grew to €991m, a growth rate of 24%
  • Highest growth rate in the Slovak Republic (39%)
  • Baltic States also experiencing strong growth, helped by proximity to Russian market
  • 2011 market forecast = €1956m (18.56%)
cee express and parcels
CEE: Express and Parcels
  • Still major differences between CEE and WE markets but likely to change as shippers demand specialist levels of service and pricing
  • Growth is not homogeneous across the region, Baltic States and Slovenia show above average growth
  • Automotive is particularly important to the express sector in Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary
  • All major global express providers are well positioned in Poland and Czech Republic
cee freight forwarding
CEE: Freight Forwarding
  • 2007 grew to €2112m, a growth rate of 21.3%
  • 2007 - Air forwarding grew to €637m, a growth rate of 17%
  • 2007 – Sea forwarding grew to €1475m, a growth rate of 23.3%
  • 2011 – freight forwarding market forecast is €3731m, a growth rate of 15.3%
cee road
CEE: Road

By Type 2006 (m t km)

Source: Eurostat

logistics actors in the region
Logistics Actors in the Region
  • Include:
    • Manufacturers
    • Retailers
    • Local, regional and national Governments
    • The European Commission
    • AND Logistics Service Providers

“Wal-Mart is hard to do business with. I had a cardiac episode while I was working for them.”- Former Exel manager of Wal-Mart DC



Ocean carriers

Inland transport


logistics industry main actors in the region
Deutsche Bahn





Ewals Cargo Care


Fiege Logistics

FM Logistics




Geodis (SNCF)

Kuehne and Nagel


AP Moller Maersk Group

NYK Logistics




UTi Worldwide


Logistics Industry: Main Actors in the Region
logistics industry main actors present in all your home countries
Logistics Industry: Main Actors present in all your home countries
  • Deutsche Bahn
  • DPWN
  • DSV
  • GAC
  • Kuehne and Nagel
  • M&M
  • Others (variable range of operations)
m m militzer m nch international holding ag
M&M: Militzer & Münch International Holding AG
  • Owned by TransInvest Holding AG
  • Headquartered in Switzerland
  • Operations divided into 6 regional groups
  • A major partner in the System Alliance organisation, a FedEx partner
  • Products and Services include rail cargo, air cargo, sea cargo, groupage, customs service, warehousing and logistics
m m strategies for growth
M&M: Strategies for Growth
  • Build its network in Eastern Europe
  • Focus on developing its IT-aided processes
  • Become more active in new and developing markets with a focus on Central Asia and China
  • Head office in Dubai
  • Privately owned
  • Operates in over 40 countries, with 250 offices and over 7000 staff
  • Business areas include shipping, logistics, marine and solutions
  • Target markets include oil and gas, retail, automotive to dry bulk and cruise liners
gac strategies for growth
GAC: Strategies for Growth
  • Aims to provide an integrated solution to its clients’ logistical needs
  • Expansionist strategy, particularly in emerging markets
  • Tends to enter new markets via partnerships first, then set up subsidiary
  • Four hub agency centres: London, Dubai, Singapore and Houston
logistics revolution
Logistics revolution

Road transport

Consolidator / freight forwarder, 3PL


Ocean shipping

Air freight


Small parcel delivery

Port trucking

Road transport

Road transport

Warehouse: deconsolidator,

3PL, wholesaler, DC


Warehouse: deconsolidator,

3PL, wholesaler, DC


how to get started
How to get started…

Union Strength