Imagine that you & your family are herders, looking after large flocks of sheep. Your grandfather is the leader of your tribe. One day your grandfather says that your whole family will be moving to a new country where there is more water and food for your flocks. The trip will be long & difficult. How do you feel about moving to a faraway land? Do Now
Chapter 7 Judaism • Big Idea: The Hebrews established a great kingdom called Israel, their culture, history, & beliefs are contained in the Torah.
Abraham & Moses • Judaism- religion of the Hebrews • Abraham- founder of Judaism • God told him to lead his family to promised land (Canaan) • God would make his descendants into a mighty nation • Famine forced them to move from Canaan to Egypt • Israelites became enslaved by Egyptians (fearful that Israelites were becoming too powerful) • Moses-led his people out of Egypt in a journey called Exodus • He led the Israelites back to the promised land (Canaan) • On way back there God gave Moses 10 commandments • Had to defeat people living there to gain control of promise land
Powerful Israelite Kings • Israelites needed a single ruler to help unite against the Philistines • Saul became 1stking of Israel defeating the Philistines • David established the capital of Israel…Jerusalem • Solomon (David’s son) made Israel rich from trading & built great temple of God in Jerusalem. • Eventually Solomon passed away, revolts broke out, & Israel split into two kingdoms = Israel & Judah.
Dispersal of the Jews • Weakened after the death of Solomon, Israel was invaded by the Assyrians • Several hundred years later Judah was taken over by the Chaldeans • Solomon’s temple was destroyed • Jews were enslaved by for 50 years. • Freed by the Persians who conquered the Chaldeans • Jews then dispersed all over Diaspora
Jewish Beliefs • Monotheistic (oldest one of its kind) • Central beliefs are: • Dedication to education • Righteous behavior • Obedient to the 10 Commandments & Mosaic Law • Governs how people pray, celebrate holidays (i.e. Sabbath), & how to prepare & eat food
Hebrew Bible (3 parts) • 1.) 1st part Torah-most sacred text of Judaism • Laws, history of the Jews, & death of Moses • Nearly every synagogue (house of worship) has a Torah • 2.) Tanakh- 2 part- message of the Jewish Prophets • 3.) 3rd part is made of 11 books on poetry, songs, stories, lessons, & history. • Another important text-Talmudeasy explanations of laws that are difficult to understand