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Chapter 4 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 4
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  1. Chapter 4 Rodolfo Rizo(rrprogamer289@gmail) and Cayman Rojas(rojas.cayman@gmail.com)

  2. Cell Theory • All organisms are composed of one or more cells, and life processes of metabolism and heredity occur within these cells • Cells are the smallest living things, the basic units of organization of all organisms • Cells arise only by division of a previously existing cells • Created by Mathias Schleidan and Theodor Schwann • Cell size is limited for as the size increases, volume increases by ten • All cells have genetic material, cytoplasm, and plasma membrane

  3. Prokaryotic Cells • Contain a • Nucleoid • Cytoplasm • Plasma membrane • Cell wall • Ribosomes • Non-membrane bound organelles • 2 types-archaea and bacteria

  4. Eukaryotic Cells • All eukaryotes contain • Nucleus • More complex than prokaryotes • Compartmentalized organelles • Cytoskeleton • Exclusive to plant cells • Cell wall • Chloroplast • vacuole

  5. Cytoskeleton-internal network of protein filaments and microtubules in an animal or plant cell

  6. Endomembrane System • Series of membranes throughout the cytoplasm • Divides cell into compartments where different cellular functions occur • Organelles included are the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum(ER), Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, mitochondria, and chloroplasts

  7. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum(Rough ER • Membrane that creates a network of channels throughout the cytoplasm • Attached with ribosomes to make more protein • More ribosomes than the smooth endoplasmic reticulum(smooth ER), hence, the ‘rough’ • Site of protein synthesis

  8. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (Smooth ER) • Relatively few ribosomes • Function is to make lipids • Calcium storage • Detoxification of foreign substances

  9. Golgi Apparatus • Flattened sacks of interconnecting membranes • Packages and distributes materials to different parts of the cell • Makes cell wall components(plant cells only)

  10. Lysosomes • Contain digestive enzymes to break down macromolecules • Destroy cells or foreign material that the cell has engulfed by phagocytosis

  11. Microbodies • Eukaryotic cells contain a variety of enzyme-bearing membrane-enclosed vessels called microbodies • An important type of microbody is called the peroxisome , containing enzymes in the oxidation of fatty acids