Democratization and arab society :challenges and opportunities
Does protecting minorities mean exterminating the majority!
WHAT IS A MINORITY? 1. A subordinate group whose members have significantly less control or power over their lives than members of a dominant or majority group 2. Not limited to mathematical minority: example women, Blacks in South Africa, Blacks in Mississippi and South Carolina in the 1920's 3. Interchangeable with subordinate group 4. A group that experiences a narrowing of opportunities (success, education, wealth, etc) that is disproportionately low compared to their numbers in the society
CHARACTERISTICS OF A MINORITY • Distinguishing physical or cultural traits, e.g. skin color or language 2. Unequal Treatment and Less Power over their lives 3. Involuntary membership in the group (no personal choice) 4. High In-group Marriage 5. Awareness of subordination and strong sense of group solidarity
Major TYPES OF MINORITY GROUPS 1. RACIAL 2. ETHNIC 3. RELIGIOUS 4. GENDERا
Responses by minorities Grievances by minorities 1-Legal discrimination and political exclusion from public office by government by political groups from the majority 2-Repression or ethnic cleansing • 1-Organizing protests inside or outside the country against government policies • 2.rebellion, civil wars, strikes, sit-in strikes • 3.Political and media mobilization and turning to international organizations • 4.Civil and human rights movements
MAP OF ARAB SOCIETY • -About 80% Sunni Muslims • -10% Shia • -10% Christians and other religious groups
Threats to democratization • Islamism • Political uncertainty and instability • Tribalism
What’s Arab spring ? • A revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests that have been taking place in some Arab countries since 18 December of 2010. It aimed at ending the abusive rule of security/Mafia regime and state sponsored corruption.
Main Obstacles to democratization • Autocratic intolerant religious culture and interpretations • Tribalism • Minorities and sectarianism • Old changing autocratic Political culture • Islamism vs. nationalism/identity
What’s to be done? • External and internal support of civil liberties and human rights • Religious reformation • Modernizing education • Media freedom and social responsibility • Economic welfare
Will the Arab Spring lead to internal war? • -Egypt and Tunisia: No • Why ? • homogenous societies • 2. Coptic minority is not armed like the Lebanese factions • 3. State and institutions are well established and deep rooted • 4.Most Egyptian Muslims are not sectarian • Clashes for power possible - SCAF Vs. IKHWAN • Libya, Yemen and Syria? • Yes. Why? • Tribalism, external powers, sectarianism, arms, no strong history of democracy
وسائل التعامل مع مشكلة الاقليات • 1- الانفصال )مثال الباكستان والهند والتشيك ) • 2- التصفية العرقية (البوسنة ، الهنود الحمر فى الامريكتين) • 3- المواطنة والديمقراطية العلمانية ( سويسرا وكندا والهند) • 4- التمييز الايجابىAFFIRMATIVE ACTION (الولايات المتحدة) • 5- قوانين محددة مثل دستور جنوب افريقيا او لجان خاصة رقابية مثل المجر ومنصب المفتش البرلمانى لحقوق الاقليات القومية والاثنية