The Arab-Israeli crisis. Flag of the Arab league. Flag of Israel. 1967- 1973 War of Attrition and the Yom Kippur War. The Khartoum Resolution1967. The Arab leaders of the Arab league met in this city to discuss what to do next with Israel. They had been badly beaten in the Six Day War.
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Flag of the Arab league
Flag of Israel.
War of Attrition and the Yom Kippur War
Sunk by Egyptian missile boats 1968.
An attempt to provoke a larger conflict.
Egyptian military build up and defence in depth.
Israeli defences – the ‘Bar Lev’ line
A bus bombing in Israel. This was typical of Arab terror raids on Israeli territory.
The USSR sent military assistance and about 10,000 advisors to help Egypt recover its military abilities.
The USSR also saw an opportunity to test out new weapons and radar systems, as well as train personnel in combat situations. The Soviet arms industry had also taken a knock in the Six Day War and saw a chance at research and development.
The Egyptians built up large amounts of anti-aircraft weaponry to try to neutralise the effect of the superior Israeli air force. They bought in particular the new, and deadly, SAM (Surface to Air) missile systems from the USSR.
An Egyptian air force Mig 21 being shot down (from an Israeli jet’s gun camera). The white dots are tracer bullets.
the A4 Skyhawk (above), and the F4 Phantom (left).
The American F4 Phantom would dominate the skies for 20 years.
Such was Nasser’s popularity- despite the lost wars- that huge crowds attended his burial. Estimated at 5 million people- it was one of the largest funerals in history. News casters cried openly on television, and women wept in the streets.
The crowds in fact hijacked his funeral and people insisted on carrying the coffin themselves.
This shows his true legacy- the restoration of Arab pride in themselves.
Not a yard was lost, or gained. The border remained at the Suez Canal.
Women Palestinian fighters in Jordan. September 1970.
Crest of the PLO.
Notice the map of Palestine all one colour.
PLO?The Palestinian Liberation Organisation was an ‘umbrella’ name for all many Palestinian political groups. It helped small groups have a greater say, and effect, on events and helped to keep secret the organisation of the more militant groups.
Many civilian deaths but it is unclear how many.
The Jordanians would want the number to be low- so as not to seem too harsh.
The PLO would want the number to be as a high as possible so as to win sympathy from outsiders.
In time the tents would become replaced by buildings, and the tracks by roads.
The anger of the people would be more difficult to modify.
A Black September terrorist negotiating with police.
RPG 7.The ‘Rocket propelled grenade’. This was so effective as a weapon that it would become the weapon of choice for many Palestinian fighters.
Syria was building up militarily too. With Soviet assistance she was rapidly becoming the strongest Arab nation in the Middle East.
She had split with Egypt (the UAR) in 1963, and had successfully resisted both Palestinian influence and Turkish pressure.
With her leader, President Assad, she was becoming a serious challenger to Egypt’s authority over the Arab world.
Syria’s political ‘Baath’ party established full control over the nation and now established links with the Baath party in Iraq. The centre of the Arabic political world was moving East.
President Assad of Syria.
Iraq lent some of these planes to Egypt for the war. An action symbolic of Arab unity.
Israeli trenches on the Bar Lev line.
Egyptian soldiers cross the canal by boat
A tremendous feat of military engineering. The Egyptians bridged the canal and cut through the sand wall fortification, (with water cannons), in 5 hours. The Israelis were taken by surprise.
Notice the RPG 7 held by the soldier in the middle.
As Egyptian troops (in red) poured into the Sinai desert, the Israeli armies grouped together and waited for the reserve army to appear.
The Israeli’s then counter attacked (in blue) by attempting to punch a hole in the Egyptian line and completely cutting off Egypt’s 3rd army.
The UAR flag (Egypt) raised in victory.
But it was too soon to celebrate.
The battle was won, but the war wasn’t finished.
the Sinai Desert.
Israeli ’Phantoms’ patrol as Israeli Centurion tanks move past wounded soldiers.
There were massive tank battles- between as many as 1,000 tanks at one time.
Syria invaded Israel. She had Iraqi air force support in the sky. King Hussein of Jordan reluctantly (?) supplied artillery to protect the South flank.
The Israeli reserves moved fast, and the Israeli air force perfected quick refuelling and resupply techniques to keep them in the air longer.
The End of the War.
-green marks Israeli gains
For them it was an almost victory, but a loss of good men and real victory added up to little.
Their military reputation was enhanced and the memory of their defeat in the Six day war had been erased.
1981 President Sadat was assassinated. Not one of his bodyguards returned fire on the attackers.
There were three US presidents at Sadat’s funeral, and only one Arab leader.
The crowds run to safety.
Egyptian ‘jihadi’ extremists.
The president and foreign visitors hide under their chairs