The Arab-Israeli Conflict Part 1 CFR Crisis Guide: The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict –
Why is there so much hostility towards Israel in the Arab/Muslim world?
Why the Arab Hostility Towards Israel?For the Answer, Just Look at the Map
Zionist Movement / Zionism • Political movement that began in Eastern Europe in late 19th century. • Goal? The establishment of a Jewishstate in Palestine, the biblical homeland of the Jews.
1917The Balfour Declaration Statement by British Foreign Secretary, Sir Arthur Balfour, supporting establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine.
1919The British Mandate • After World War I, League of Nations gave Britain a mandate to govern Palestine. • European Jews emigrated to Palestine in large numbers.
1945The Impact of the Holocaust • International support for creating a Jewish state in Palestine increased after the Holocaust.
The Palestinians • Palestinians were the Arab inhabitants of Palestine. • Opposed creation of Jewish state in their homeland. • Violent conflicts broke out in Palestine between Arabs and Jews. Hundreds died.
U.N. Partition Plan, 1947 • U.N. partitioned British- controlled Palestine into Arab and Jewish states. • Reaction? • Jews accepted partition plan. • Arabs rejected it.
Israel’s War for IndependenceFirst Arab-Israeli War, 1948 • May, 1948– Israel declared itself an independent state. • U.S. first country to extend recognition to new state. • Led to first Arab-Israeli War. • How did this war start?
1948 War • Israel was attacked by five neighboring Arab states: • Egypt • Syria • Jordan • Iraq • Lebanon
Results of 1948 War • Israel won decisive victory • – and seized some territory • UN had intended for the • Palestinians. • Cease-fire agreement ended • fighting, but Arabs refused to • sign peace treaty. • No Arab country recognized • Israel. Victorious Israeli soldiers 1948
Israeli territory before and after the 1948 war: Note that Israel took control of the western half of Jerusalem after the 1948 war.
Results of 1948 War • 750,000 Palestinian • refugees fled to • neighboring Arab • states.
Second Arab-Israeli WarThe Suez War, 1956 • Egypt nationalized Suez Canal. • Then Israel, Britain and France attacked Egypt and captured the canal and Sinai peninsula. • U.S. opposed attack and U.S. and U.N. imposed a cease-fire and a withdraw from Sinai. Egyptian President Gamel Abdel Nasser
Third Arab-Israeli WarThe Six Day War, 1967 • Israel launched preemptive attack against Egypt after Egypt mobilized its army. • Jordan and Syria attacked Israel. • War ended with decisive victory for Israel and Israel tripled amount of territory it controlled.
Results of the Six Day WarIsrael Captured Arab Territories Israel occupied this territory in 1967: • Golan Heights from Syria. • West Bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan. • Sinai Peninsula and Gazafrom from Egypt.
Results of the Six Day WarIsraeli Occupation of Gaza and theWest Bank • Israel now governed 1 million Palestinians in Gaza and the West Bank . • Israel’s continued occupation of these territories remains the major issue preventing peace between Israel and the Arab world today.
Results of the Six Day WarUN Resolution 242 • UN Security Council passed Resolution 242:calling for Israel to withdraw from the occupied territories. Israel refused. • Also called for Arab states to recognize Israel and guarantee security of Israel’s borders. None did.
Results of the Six Day WarEmergence of the PLO • Arab’s suffered humiliating defeat in Six Day War. • Many Palestinians became radicalized and turned to guerilla groups such as the PLO.
The PLO (Palestinian Liberation Organization) • Yasser Arafat’s group, Fatah, took control of the PLO (1969). • Under Arafat, the PLO fought a decades-long guerilla war against Israel to “liberate Palestine.” • Goals: Destruction of Israel and establishment of secular Palestinian state. PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat
Yasser ArafatTerrorist or Freedom Fighter? Israel and U.S. branded Arafat as a terrorist, but he was admired as a freedom fighter by Palestinians and their allies throughout the world.
PLO Terrorism Munich Olympics 1972 Palestinian terrorist from “Black September” 11 Israeli athletes and coaches killed at Munich Terrorist Attack at Munich
Fourth Arab-Israeli WarYom Kippur War, 1973 • Egypt and Syria attacked Israel on Jewish holy day. • Israel repelled attack and cease-fire declared.
Camp David Accords, 1979 • Peace treaty signed by Israel and Egypt. • Egypt became first Arab state to recognize Israel. • Israel returned Sinai Peninsula to Egypt. • Sadat assassinated by Islamic extremists in 1981. President Carter with Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin Sadat's assassination
Carter with Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin
Israel’s Invasion of Lebanon, 1982 • Israel invaded Lebanon to destroy PLO bases. • Negotiated settlement allowed Arafat and PLO fighters to go to Tunisia. • Israeli army occupied southern Lebanon for almost 20 years (until 2000)
Hezbollah (“Party of God”) • Lebanese resistance group formed in response to Israel’s occupation. • Islamic extremists who oppose Israel’s existence. • Shiite group supported by Iran and Syria. • Considered to be terrorist group by the U.S. Hezbollah leader HassenNasrallah and Hezbollah fighters
Palestinian UprisingFirst Intifada 1987-1993 • Palestinian uprising against Israeli occupation of West Bank and Gaza. • 1,500 Palestinians and 400 Israeli’s died over six years. • Hamas launched first suicide attacks inside Israel.
Hamas • Islamic militant group founded in 1987 with vow to “liberate Palestine through violent jihad.” • Has carried out scores of suicide bombings against Israel during past decade. • Supported by both Iran and Syria.
Oslo Accords, 1993 • President Clinton brokered peace agreement between Israel and the PLO. • PLO recognized Israel’s right to exist and renounced use of violence. • PLO goal now a Palestinian state next to Israel. Clinton with Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat
Clinton with Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat
Oslo Accords: “Land for Peace” • Israel agreed to gradual Palestinian self-rule in Gaza and West Bank as first steps towards establishment of Palestinian state (“Two state solution”) • Palestinian Authority establishedtogovern Palestinian territories. • Arafat became first leader of the PA. Yasser Arafat
Jordan and Israeli Make Peace, 1994 • Jordan became only the second Arab state to sign a peace treaty with Israel.
Palestinian UprisingSecond Intifada 2000 - 2005 • Clinton’s attempt to reach final settlement between Israel and Palestinians in 2000 failed. • Led to second, more violent, Palestinian uprising. • Dozens of suicide bombings in Israel and Israeli crack- down in Gaza / West Bank left thousands dead.
2002Bush’s “Road Map” to Peace • Bush called for Palestinian reforms and abandonment of terrorism in exchange for an end to Israeli settlements and creation of a Palestinian state. • Bush became the first U.S. president to publicly endorse idea of a Palestinian state.
2004New Palestinian Leadership • Mahmoud Abbas • elected as Arafat’s • successor. Daily Show on Arafat's Death
2005Israeli Policy of Disengagement • Israel act to “disengage” from the Palestinians: • Evacuated Gaza settlements • Withdrew troops from Gaza. • Turned Gaza over to the Palestinians. • Also began construction of a security barrier separating Israel from West Bank. Dismantlement of Gaza Settlements 2005
Israel’s War with Hezbollah, 2006 • Hezbollah killed eight Israeli soldiers and attacked Israeli civilian areas with rockets • Israel responded by bombing and invading Lebanon again to destroy Hezbollah. • Month-long war leaves 1,500 dead before U.N. brokered cease-fire agreement. Iranian influence in Lebanon
Hamas Election Victory, 2006 • Hamas won surprise victory over Fatah in parliamentary election. • Hamas took control of Palestinian parliament. • Created bitter division b/ Fatah and Hamas.
Hamas vs. FatahPalestinian Civil War, 2007 Hamas fighters • Fighting broke out in Gaza between Hamas and Fatah forces. • Hamas defeated Fatah and drove it out of Gaza. • Now Hamas controls Gaza. • Fatah controls only those parts of the West Bank not under Israeli occupation. Fatah fighters
Hamas vs. Fatah Hamas Fatah Secular moderates. Supported by U.S., E.U., most Arab states. Recognizes and wants peace with Israel. Controls parts of West Bank. • Islamic extremists. • Supported by Iran and Syria. • No recognition of Israel’s right to exist. Stages attacks against Israel. • Controls Gaza