2.04 Identify major fashion centers, types of designers, and price market categories.
Major U. S. Fashion Centers New York City, New York Los Angeles, California Atlanta, Georgia Chicago, Illinois Miami, Florida Dallas, Texas
Los Angeles, California: Second largest fashion market in the United States.
World Fashion Centers Paris, France Italy Great Britain
Types of Fashion Designers • Designer: • Creates or adapts clothing and accessories • Sells to manufacturers, retailers, clients • Freelance Designer: • Independent designer who sells to manufacturers • Stylist: • Designs by changing or adapting designs • Makes lower priced merchandise
Terms associated with Fashion Design • Fashion: • Styles that are accepted and used by a particular group of people at a given time • Collection: • The total merchandise in a designer’s or apparel manufacturer’s seasonal presentation, especially for high-priced garments. • Line: • A collection of styles offered by a manufacturer or designer. • Fashion Season: • Distinct retail selling periods in fashion marketing • Garment District: • Most apparel companies are located in this area.
Categories of Design • High Fashion: • Very latest or newest fashions • Couture: • High Fashion created by designers • Avant-Garde: • Most daring and wild designs • Ready-to-wear: • Mass produced to standard sizes • Knock-off: • Design copied from a more expensive garment • Private label: • Merchandise developed for a given store • Store label
European Terms • Alta Moda: • High fashion industry in Italy • Haute Couture: • High fashion designer industry in France • Individual design / Original Garments • Couturier: • Male high fashion designer • Couturiere: • Female high fashion designer • Pret-a-porter: • French term for ready to wear • Chambre Syndicale de la Couture Parisenne: • French trade association for couture designers
Licensing • A legal arrangement granting a manufacturer the exclusive right to produce and market goods that bear the name of a famous person • Examples: Nike – Air Jordan K-Mart – Martha Stewart Manufacturer pays a fee called a Royalty to use images.
Fashion Piracy • Stealing design ideas Adidas?
Price Market Categories • Designer (Couture): • Extremely small market, • Original, high-priced fashion custom-made for a few individuals • One of a kind. Extreme styles. Avant Garde • Luxurious, expensive fabrics • Sold through designer’s salon • Sell for thousands of dollars. (Example: $50,000 per garment) • Not necessarily sold for profit Christian Dior Yves St. Laurent Chanel Givenchy Versace
Price Market Categories • Bridge • Almost replaced couture • Secondary Lines of well known designers • Designer Label • Most Expensive Ready to Wear • Expensive Fabrics with fine details • Sell for hundreds or thousands of dollars • Sold in upscale department stores • Examples: Nordstrom’s, Neiman Marcus, Sak’s Armani Gucci Prada Louis Vitton Ralph Lauren
Price Market Categories • Better • Have a firm label, not a designer name • Ready to wear – Produced in large quantities • High Quality • Reasonable prices • Sold in specialty department stores • Ex: Macy’s, Marshall Field’s, Lord and Taylor DKNY CK
Price Market Categories • Moderate • Well known, nationally advertised brands • Lesser known designers • Inspired (copied) from designer creations • Widely available and worn by many • Medium Priced merchandise • High volume sales, high price margins • Sold through department chains • Ex: Abercrombie, Old Navy, Guess, Kohl’s
Price Market Categories • Budget • Lowest Price Category • Created by stylists • Knockoffs • Mass produced with inexpensive fabrics • Sold in discount stores and low-price chains • Ex: JC Penny, Sears, Target, K-Mart