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Austria-Hungary’s Decline. Academic World History II. Austria-Hungary’s Decline. There were 3 major powers in early 1800s eastern Europe . Russia Ottoman Empire Austria The Austrian Empire contained 11 different national groups. Austria lacked national and geographic unity.

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Austria-Hungary’s Decline

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austria hungary s decline

Austria-Hungary’s Decline

Academic World History II

austria hungary s decline1
Austria-Hungary’s Decline
  • There were 3 major powers in early 1800s eastern Europe.
    • Russia
    • Ottoman Empire
    • Austria
  • The Austrian Empire contained 11 different national groups.
    • Austria lacked national and geographic unity.
  • Like Russia, Austria's economy was based on agriculture.
    • A powerful nobility controlled the land and the peasant population.
the revolution of 1848
The Revolution of 1848
  • The principal political figure in Austria during the early 1800s was Prince Klemens von Metternich.
    • Throughout his rule as minister of foreign affairs (1809-48) he worked to crush all revolutionary activity.
  • The revolutionary movement that started in France spread to Austria.
    • Nationalist groups demanded freedom of speech/press, freeing of peasants, and representative government.
    • At age 18, Francis Joseph took over as emperor.
      • He dissolved the revolutionary assembly and rejected the constitution.
the dual monarchy
The Dual Monarchy
  • Several challenges would be presented to Francis Joseph’s empire.
    • In 1848, Hungarian nationalists (Magyars) declared independence.
    • It was unsuccessful, but Francis Joseph realized that he needed better relations with the Hungarians.
    • Francis Joseph met with Hungarian leader Francis Deak to try to work out a compromise.
  • In 1867, the Ausgleich restored Hungary’s independence and established a dual monarchy.
    • Francis Joseph was ruler of both areas.
the dual monarchy cont
The Dual Monarchy, cont.
  • Austria and Hungary depended on each other economically.
    • After the dual monarchy was declared, Austria began to industrialize more rapidly.
    • Bohemia and Moravia became urban centers.
  • The dual monarchy satisfied the Austrians and the Magyars.
    • Other nationalities, including the Slavs, were unhappy.
    • Many Slavs, who had no voice in government, wanted to break free and form a large Slavic kingdom.
powder keg in the balkans
Powder Keg in the Balkans
  • By the mid-1800s, the Ottoman Empire was weakening.
    • Other countries watched the decline, hoping to expand in this region.
    • Austria, France, and Great Britain wanted to prevent Russian expansion into these areas.
      • During the Crimean War allies helped protect the Ottoman Empire from Russian expansion.
    • The Ottoman Empire continued to lose power and territory in the late 1800s and early 1900s.
the congress of berlin
The Congress of Berlin
  • Russia went to war with the Ottoman Empire in 1877.
    • Russia used the Slavic nationalist movement to justify expansion.
    • The treaty of San Stefano ended this war and created a Bulgarian state which was controlled by Russia.
    • European countries protested the treaty of San Stefano.
      • Jingoism, or extreme patriotism, developed in Great Britain.
      • Many British wanted to go to war with Russia.
    • European leaders met in Berlin to revise the treaty in 1878.
balkan conflict
Balkan Conflict
  • Bulgaria was divided into three parts.
    • One part remained under Ottoman rule.
    • Serbia, Montenegro, and Romania became independent.
    • Britain gained Cyprus, Austria-Hungary controlled Bosnia and Herzegovina.
  • The Congress of Berlin satisfied few.
  • By 1912, people of the Balkans joined forces to free members of their nationalities from Ottoman rule.
    • The Balkan League, which consisted of Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, and Serbia declared war on Turkey in 1912.
      • The Ottomans lost all of their European territory except for Istanbul.
balkan conflict cont
Balkan Conflict, cont.
  • Members of the Balkan league began to fight among themselves.
    • Serbia and Bulgaria had secretly arranged land distribution in the event that the Balkan League won.
    • After the victory, Bulgaria refused to go along with the agreement.
    • This led to another Balkan War when Bulgaria attacked Greek and Serb forces in the disputed areas.
    • Other Balkan states joined the effort against Bulgaria.
      • The Treaty of Bucharest ended this war in 1913.
      • Bulgaria, which lost the war, surrendered much of the land it previously won.

The treaty of Bucharest didn’t bring peace.

    • Serbia’s increased power was a threat to Austria-Hungary.
    • Russia sought to gain land and influence in the Balkans.
    • The French, British, and Germans wanted to preserve the balance of power and keep Austria-Hungary and Russia from gaining more power.
    • The “Powder Keg of Europe” would soon erupt into a major European conflict.