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The World at War - WWI: 1914-1918. Causes of the War. 1 . Militarism & Arms Race. Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s (pounds). 2. The Alliance System. Germany, Italy, Austria-Hungary. Triple Entente :. Triple Alliance :.

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1. Militarism & Arms Race

Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s (pounds).


2. The Alliance System

Germany, Italy, Austria-Hungary

Triple Entente:

Triple Alliance:

Britain, France and Russia


Two Armed Camps!

Allied Powers:

Central Powers:


Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914

The“Powder Keg”of Europe

  • Brinkmanship – the practice of threatening to go to war to achieve one’s goals
  • Conscription – a military draft
  • Mobilization – the process of assembling and making both troops and supplies ready for war.

The Assassin:




  • “Mata Hari”
  • Real Name:MargarethaGertruideZelle
  • German Spy!

Governments Increase Powers

  • In order to ensure that enough was produced for the war, governments increased their powers, even taking over industries
  • Free speech was curtailed to prevent dissention that could harm war effort
  • Used propaganda to sway public opinion

German Atrocities in Belgium

Britain Joins the War


Recruits of the Central Powers

A German Soldier Says Farewell to His Mother



The Western Front

Trench Warfare – fighting from ditches, protected by barbed wire, led to stalemate

War of attrition – a war based on wearing the other side down by constant attack and heavy losses.


Trench Warfare

“No Man’s Land” = the area of land between your trench and the enemy trench


Russia Drops Out

Russia experienced a revolution in 1917 and quits the war, signing the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk


The Middle East

Other than Europe, the Middle East saw the biggest battles as the Ottomans (Turks) fought Britain, Russia, and France

the middle east a dual promise
The Middle East – A Dual Promise

Balfour Declaration

  • Jews promised a homeland in Palestine if they helped the Allies fight

Hussein-McMahon Correspondence

  • G.B. promised the land of Palestine to Arabs if they helped fight the Ottomans

Fighting in Africa

Black Soldiers in the German Schutztruppen[German E. Africa]

British Sikh Mountain Gunners


Fighting in Africa

  • Major reason Allies fighting war was nationalism, and to gain independence for eastern Europe
  • So, colonial subjects in Africa, and other parts of world thought that in return for their assistance they would gain independence
  • This did not happen

Japan’s Continued Rise

  • Following the war, Japan was mostly ignored at the peace conference
  • The Japanese were angry and continued to expand
  • Japan had alliance with Britain, so entered WW1 on side of Allies
  • Japan able to take more land (especially from China) during the war
neutrality helps
Neutrality Helps

As Europe became embroiled in war, the U.S. benefitted economically

Sold war supplies and, along with Japan, became major exporter, replacing Europeans in many parts of world

This would remain after the war


The Airplane

“Squadron Over the Brenta”Max Edler von Poosch, 1917


The Flying Aces of World War I

FrancescoBarraco, It.

Eddie “Mick”Mannoch, Br.

Eddie Rickenbacher, US

Manfred vonRichtoffen, Ger.[The “RedBaron”]

Rene PaukFonck, Fr.

Willy Coppens deHolthust, Belg.





Poison Gas

Machine Gun


11 a.m., November 11, 1918

The Armistice is Signed! End of WWI

  • Germany punished – war guilt, reparations, and disarmament
  • Leads to social and economic problems in Germany
  • Wilson’s self-determination not granted around the world, only eastern Europe (see map)
  • Colonial peoples are dissatisfied, leads to independence movements (ex: Gandhi in India)

15,000,000Dead from WWI

Another 20 million wounded


The Somme American Cemetery, France

116,516 Americans Died

America becomes Isolationist