Infants: Maximizing Our Time Together Infant Toddler Symposium YMCA Hartford July 29,2011 Presented By: Anita Deschenes-Desmond Sheila Marchand Donna Rooney
Our Goals for Today • Participants will examine the Connecticut Guidelines for the Development of Infants and Toddlers Early Learning • Participants will identify typical behavior for infants and plan adult interactions that can assist the infant in realizing their potential. • Participants will practice focused observation of infants and develop plans for informed instruction and support. • Participants will identify signals of possible delays in development , consider ways to inform families and understand how to access external supports.
Temperament • Appears to be biologically based • Fairly constant over time • Affects a child’s reactions to other people and the environment (Wittmer & Petersen, 2006 based on Thomas, Chess, Birch, Hertzig & Korn, 1963)
Temperament Traits • Activity level – always active or generally still • Biological rhythms – predictability of hunger, sleep, elimination • Approach/withdrawal – response to new situations • Mood – tendency to react with positive or negative mood, serious, fussy • Intensity of reaction – energy or strength of emotional reaction • Sensitivity – comfort with levels of sensory information; sound, brightness of light, feel of clothing, new tastes • Adaptability – ease of managing transitions or changes • Distractibility – how easily a child’s attention is pulled from an activity • Persistence – how long child continues with an activity he/she finds difficult Wittmer and Petersen, 2006
Temperament Types Flexible, Fearful, and Feisty istockphoto.com/LisaSvara http://office.microsoft.com/en-au/default.aspx http://office.microsoft.com/enau/default.aspx
Strategies for Helping Babies Self-Regulate • Containing their limbs with swaddling, cuddling, and bringing them close to your chest and heartbeat • Providing something to suck: a pacifier, their own hand, their fingers • Limiting the stimulation in the environment • Helping baby to awaken or to fall asleep with rocking, cuddling, gentle patting, a quiet voice, singing, or a simple chant • Using a firm, gentle touch
Adult uses Touch Talk Facial Expressions Gestures Infant uses Facial Expressions Sounds Body Language Learning Starts at Birth
What Can You Do? The Three A’s • Allow the Child to lead • Adapt your behavior to share the moment • Add language and experience
Allow The Child to LeadOWL • O bserve your child, then • W ait to give him the chance to communicate in his own way, and • L isten to him sensitively
Things That Will Help You to OWL • Be face to face – follow child’s lead • Respond with interest –imitate, interpret, comment, join in and play
It can be hard to get the message! Babies have states of awareness that give us clues so we can understand their message Newborns alert and quiet to a human voice “I cry, help comes” Responding to a baby’s “tune in-tune out” cues is the beginning of turn taking and their first conversations
Follow Baby’s Lead • Watch, Wait and Listen for signals • Respond to signals by imitating and interpreting • Responding quickly and consistently helps baby learn to predict a pattern and keep communication going
Observation Practice Practice your observation skills by viewing the video and documenting what you see and hear. How would you support this infant? What questions might you ask the family?
How it all starts… “I’ve Arrived!” • Their first developmental task is to set a rhythm in their daily routines, developing patterns and expectations • Those wonderful sputters, squeaks, gentle noises and hiccups are his way of trying to tell you what he needs
Connecticut’s Guidelines for the Development of Infant and Toddler Early Learning
How to use the document • Seek information on infant and toddler development, explore where a child is developmentally and look to see what might occur next in the child’s development • Guide planning and intentional interactions with infants and toddlers • Create safe, appropriate, nurturing environments • Enhance parent knowledge, involvement and support
Organization of the document • Each stage of development • Description of what you can expect to see in this age range. • Suggestions on toys and materials • Suggestions on the design of space • Ways that adults can support healthy growth and development through interactions
Organization of the document • “Did you know?” boxes that feature best practice and research on developmental highlights. • Sample activities • “Close-up” section that illustrates supportive interactions between caregiver and baby and/or peer.
Using the Connecticut Guidelines for Development of Infant and Toddler Learning • In your small group, refer to the Guidelines and discuss some ways you can support children. What adult interactions, environmental changes, toys and activities that will support their continued growth and development? • Be prepared to share with the whole group.
“I’m Waking Up”By 3 Months • Babies are much more aware of sounds around them and respond with noises and movements of their own • They are beginning to smile and coo, both for their own pleasure and to keep your attention • Watch people and are soothed by your face • Begin to grasp and bring objects to their mouth • Follow moving things with their eyes • Begin to do more than one thing at a time ( look and hear; see and suck)
“This is My Voice!”3-6 Months • By 3 months, babies cry less and make lots of new sounds • They start to laugh and play with their voices and babble • Different types of crying mean different things • Vocalizes to initiate social contact • Begin to recognize familiar faces • Become more interactive with people and their environment • Purposeful reaching and grasping and beginning to play with objects • Roll front to back and back to front • Sit with some assistance • Explore everything with mouth • Alert and awake for longer periods of time • Show signs of remembering • Enjoy back and forth play
“I’ve Got Power!”6-9 • Respond and copy different voice tones • Learn what things mean and look to things you name • Enjoy short songs and social games • Refine their babbling skills and some sound like words • May respond with fear to unfamiliar people • Respond to their name • Show preferences • Delights in copying and being copied ( you are the best toy) • Sit independently, roll, creep, may pull to stand • Investigate toys more purposefully, explore more than one object at once • Wait for the effects of their actions and will repeat actions over and over
“I Do Believe They’ve Got it!”9-12 Months • Understand and connect your words with real things • Carry out simple requests ( wave bye-bye) • Use gesture/sounds purposefully • Enjoys interaction with other children and adults and senses changes in mood • Interacts with self in mirror • Becomes frustrated or upset when toys are not responding • Begin to self feed • Move freely by cruising, crawling, walking, climbing • Pick up small objects with thumb and forefinger and can point • Remember games and toys from past • Enjoy dumping and filling • Practice actions over and over • Use objects symbolically
“ No Thank You”12-18 Months • Learn to understand a lot of new words • Communicates in ways that sound like words ( jargon) • May produce some words • Can follow simple directions, but is not always cooperative • Plays beside playmates and copies what they do • May become frustrated • Want to do things for themselves like feeding and dressing • Moves around more easily- walks , climbs, runs • Begin to problem solve • Remembers familiar stories and shows preferences for stories • Start to role play
When Should I Be Concerned • Children will develop skills at different rates • A good rule of thumb is most children should demonstrate 80% of the skills in a given age range. • A red flag might also be a regression in a child’s skills
What if I have concerns Principles you might follow: • Have a conversation with the family to see how the child responds at home. Discuss how you can use this information to support the child. • Select a skill to focus on and introduce it repeatedly for several weeks. • remember that repetition is crucial – it is the way we learn • Find as many opportunities as you can to practice the same skill throughout the day • If the family and caregiver continue to have concerns regarding the child’s development they can discuss them with the child’s pediatrician and consider a referral to the Birth to Three program for further assessment.
Who Do You Call? • Three months to 34 months – talk to the family about referring to Birth to Three 1-800-505-7000 • Thirty four months and up – talk to the family about referral to the school district in the town where the family lives