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Time Space and Time-Space
Time, Space, and Time-Space The Organization of Time The Arrow of Time Time, Flies, Fastballs, and Lifespans Time-Space Totality, Prisms, Paths Constraints In and On Time-Space Cognitive, Capability, Coupling, Control Some Examples of Time-Space Analysis Time-Space Convergence Effects of TSC on Economic Systems Time, Space and History Changing Historical City Form
The Organisation of Time Obligatory time - used to do necessary things such as eating, personal hygiene, sleeping, and working. Discretionary time - used for things which you can choose to do or not to do, such as recreational activities. About two thirds of your time is spent doing obligatory activities and the other third is spent on discretionary activities.
What Time Amounts To Time is a fixed quantity Rich or poor we cannot ‘make’ more time, only allocate the fixed 24 hour amount to better suit our purposes. The ability to allocate time depends on: Demographics Economics Social circumstances Physical abilities Stage in the life cycle
The Organisation of Time Over Time Amounts of discretionary and obligatory time change over historical time and over the life cycle. Workweek length generally today is between 35 and 48 hours. Circa 1900 it was between 45 and 60 hours. But as economic conditions change: • Workweek and workday getting longer. • Vacation lengths getting shorter. • Early retirement disappearing. • Serial careers, contract work and multiple jobs becoming the norm. • Some accommodation to flextime happening. Hunter gatherers ‘work’ for about 12-20 hours a week.
The Arrow of Time Space controls what we can do through the friction of distance as manifest in distance decay. Time also controls what we do through direction and quantity. Direction is called the arrow of time – you can only move forward. Quantity is the same for all – you cannot “buy time” no matter what the saying.
Time Flies … But In Which Direction? • While time only has one direction, different cultures also think of time as having an orientation. • Westerners: “here and now”, “back in the 1970s”, “going forwards” all linking the flow of time to spatial direction – the future stretches ahead and the past behind. • Yupno of New Guinea: future is downhill towards the local river’s mouth and the past is uphill towards its source. • Aymara of the Andes: time flows front (future) to back (past). • Pormpuraaw of Australia: past lies to the east, the future to the west.
Time and Flies There is even the question of whether time is perceived the same for everyone – or everything. Adult fruit flies are beloved among biologists because their 30 day lifespan is ideal for testing generational trends quickly, and adult mayflies live only for one day. Some psychology research suggests that children may perceive time as moving more slowly, and indeed that time perception in general speeds up with age. Hence the age old refrain “are we there yet.”
CFF and DVA There are also two physiological processes that distort time and space for animals. Dynamic Visual Acuity (DVA) is the ability to focus sharply when either your head or the object you’re looking at is moving. Critical Flicker Fusion (CFF) rate is the rate at which we perceive smooth movement in moving objects. CFF rates have been implicated in the idea that perception of time relates to the speed at which we see/perceive movement in the environment.
Hitting Fastballs and Flies CFF rates are measured in hertz (Hz), a measure of frequency in cycles per second. Humans average about 40-50 Hz, which is why older CRT TVs and computer screens scanned at 60Hz – that way most humans see a smooth picture. Cats have CFF rates of about 90-100Hz, which is why they can catch fast moving mice – which also have high CFF rates so they can see fast moving cats. Flies have CFF rates of about 240Hz, which is why you can’t catch them. 2 per second 100 per second 10 per second
How to Grow Old Slowly The point? Strange as it may seem, the slower a creature’s metabolism, the slower its CFF rate and DVA, but the longer it seems to live. Whether these creatures actually perceive time to be slower and thus longer is not known. So although we all have only 24 hours a day to play, maybe some hours for some creatures appear longer than for others. Ask any kid. (Are we there yet? Are we there yet? Are we there yet? Are we there yet? Are we there yet? (Are we there yet? Are we there yet? Are we there yet? Are we there yet? Are we there yet? )
Being Spacey Space has its oddities too. Remove all the space from within the atoms of all humans on earth and they would fit into a sugar cube. We actually never touch anything, ‘touch’ being an interaction between the electrons in their orbits around the atoms that comprise the matter ‘touching’. When coupled with the arrow of time, space constrains when you can be whereand leads us to the related constructs of the time-space totality, time-space prisms and time-space paths.
Time-Space Diagrams, Paths, Cubes and Prisms We can organise time-space using time-space diagrams comprised of paths, cubes and prisms. Diagrams are comprised of a horizontal space axis and a vertical time axis. Paths are particular sets of locations and movements undertaken in a time space diagram. Cubes convert the 2D diagrams and paths into more precise 3D time-spaces comprised of 2D space and 1D time dimensions. Prisms show how much of the diagram - how much time-space - is available to you given constraints.
TIME-SPACE DIAGRAM Agraphical display of time and space for some period of time (eg a day or a week) Midnight Timeis on the vertical axis Space on the horizontal axis TIME Noon Midnight Home Work Play Space
TIME-SPACE PATH Agraphical display of a daily path for some period of time (eg a day or a week) Midnight TIME Noon Midnight Home Work Play Space
A Day in the Life of Jane Average 10pm to 10:30pm: Travel to home 10:30pm to 12 midnight: At home 24 hr 6 pm Noon 6 am 0 hr 6pm to 7 pm: At home 7:30pm to 10pm: At movies 7pm to 7:30pm: Travel to movies 5pm to 6 pm: Travel to home T I M E 8am to 5 am: At work, eats lunch at workplace 7am to 8 am: Travel to work Midnight to 7am: At home Movies Home Work SPACE .
Jane’s Fixed and Movement Paths 24 hr 6 pm Noon 6 am 0 hr T I M E Her Fixed Places Her Travel Spaces BUT SHE’S ALWAYS A TIME TRAVELLER Movies Home Work SPACE .
TIME-SPACE CUBE Midnight But in reality, movement paths take place in 2 space dimensions (3 if we count elevation) plus time. TIME Noon Midnight Home Work Play Space
The Time-Space Prism (Prisn?) A time-space prism is that portion of the time-space cube that is available to someone given their particular set of constraints. In this case they are a pedestrian moving at 4kph. 24 hrs 6pm Noon 6am O hrs Staying in one place (home) for six hours (movement in time only) Travelling inbound for six hours (movement in time and space) Time Travelling outbound for six hours (movement in time and space) Staying in one place (home) for six hours (movement in time only) HOME 240 km 24 km 24 km 240 km Space
Time-Space Prism Elasticity Time-space prisms are elastic – once a person commits to one part of it the opposite parts are no longer available. 24 hrs 6pm Noon 6am O hrs Time HOME Space
Your Life as a Vector in Time-Space 24 hrs 6pm Noon 6am O hrs Movement in time The slope (or steepness) of the vector indicates your speed (s=d/t) and hence the potential amount of time-space you can use. The steeper the line the slower the speed, the less the space available. Life takes place as a set of vectors in time-space that, when connected, dictate how many opportunities you could possibly use. Time Movement in space HOME 240 km 24 km 24 km 240 km Space
Some Implications of Time-Space Time is immutable – it moves at the same pace for everyone. Only speed can change the amount of space you can access. More space = more potential opportunities. More resources (e.g. money) = more options for speeding up. Improved technology (e.g. roads/vehicles) = improved speed, but… More traffic = decreased speed. More knowledge of opportunities = better chance of getting them. Better health = faster speeds and wider time-space prism. Too young or old = slower speeds and smaller T-S prisms.
Constraints on Time-Space Thus far we have seen that: ● allevents and environments are contained within the time-space totality, and... ● that we can only access a very small part of that totality called a time-space prism, and... ● that even within this prism we are restricted to a limited number of time-space paths, and thus ... ● we are limited to the quantity and quality of the events and environments we can access.
Constraints on Time-Space Constraints are a series of time-space limitations loosely grouped into four related types that restrict what we can do where. These are: Attribute Limitations Temporal Limitations (the arrow of time) Spatial Limitations (distance decay) Choice based Limitations
Constraints on Time-Space Attribute Limitations: These are the social, economic, cultural, demographic, capability, intellectual, political, cognitive and perceptual attributes of the individual that reflect the level of control that a person can exercise within time-space prisms. In large part these relate to cognitive filtering and decision making.
Constraints on Time-Space Temporal Limitations: Regardless of attribute limitations, there are arrow of time constraints on the use of space (e.g. even extremely wealthy people only have 24 hours in a day). This leads to…
Constraints on Time-Space Spatial Limitations: These relate to distance decay and when connected with the arrow of time give us: The domestic activity system, in and around the home where distance decay is not a factor, but the arrow of time is. The community activity system, beyond home base where both distance decay and the arrow of time are constraints.
Constraints on Time-Space Choice based Limitations: Time, space and choice are governed by the type of events in which you have to, or want to, participate. These are: Events that are obligatory, and Events that are discretionary.
Constraints on Time-Space Important points: Even the wealthy and educated with potentially large prisms may be severely constrained by lack of discretionary time or good health, … … whereas the unemployed with smaller prisms may have plenty of both. Yet both groups still have the same 24 hours in a day and the same laws to obey … … and mostly the same constraints to follow.
Types of Constraints on Time-Space • Capacity constraints: the size of the time-space prism itself. • Capability constraints: our level of mobility and accessibility. • Coupling constraints: our ability to connect opportunities (the arrow of time). • Control (authority) constraints: who gate keeps the opportunities? • Cognitive constraints: our knowledge of opportunities within it.
Capacity Constraints on the Time-space Prism Six Hour Travel Time-Space and Return by Different Methods PEDESTRIAN: 4 kph for 6 hrs = 24 km 24 hrs 6pm Noon 6am O hrs DRIVER: 40 kph for 6 hrs = 240 km FLYER: 400 kph for 6 hrs = 2400 km Time HOME 240 km 24 km 24 km 240 km Space
Capability Constraints on Time-Space • Mobility in and accessibility to time-space depends on many factors or combinations of factors: • Mode of transportation. • Economic status. • Demographics: gender, ethnicity, language, age. • Religious restrictions on travel. • Legal restrictions on travel. • Physical and/or psychological condition. • Stage in the life cycle. • Design elements: wheelchair, seeing, hearing access.
Capability Constraints on the Time-space Prism PEDESTRIAN: Only gets opportunity #1 DRIVER: Gets all opportunities 24 hrs 6pm Noon 6am O hrs BUT… Time HOME Work Opportunity #3 Work Opportunity #2 Work Opportunity #1 240 km 24 km 24 km 240 km Space
Capability Constraints on the Time-space Prism PEDESTRIAN: Can get to #1 but cannot stay there long. DRIVER: Can get to all but only stay at #1 and #2 for long. 24 hrs 6pm Noon 6am O hrs X X Time Start and end times X Length of time at opportunity X X Work Opportunity #2 Work Opportunity #3 Work Opportunity #1 HOME 240 km 24 km 24 km 240 km Space
Coupling Constraints on Time-Space • The ability to couple opportunities in time-space depends on many factors or combinations of factors: • Do we know the opportunities are there? • Does the time-space path between them allow us to connect them? • That is, opportunities cannot be coupled if they: • start or end outside your prism; • occur outside your prism; • are latent (unknown); • overlap in time but not space; • occur too close in time and too far apart in space.
Coupling Constraints on the Time-space Prism PEDESTRIAN: Can get to B but cannot stay there. DRIVER: Can access either A, or C and B 24 hrs 6pm Noon 6am O hrs Neither can access D Time B D A C HOME 240 km 24 km 24 km 240 km Space
Control Constraints on Time-Space • Even if we can couple events, who or what can stop us? • Hours of operation. • Fees to participate. • Exclusivity of memberships. • Restrictions placed on areas either openly or discretely, such as redlined residential districts or perceived high risk areas. • Political boundaries that disallow access to non-residents. • Restrictions on health services depending on income or status. • Social group restrictions based on ethnicity, income, residential location, age, personal habits such as smoking. • Restrictions on employment opportunities created by requirements for appropriate qualifications. • Restrictions on employment created by closed shop trade union rules or perceptions of ability (e.g. women can’t drive heavy machinery).
Control Constraints on the Time-space Prism PEDESTRIAN: Can get to B but cannot stay there. DRIVER: Can access either A, or B and C 24 hrs 6pm Noon 6am O hrs Racism Sexism Law Money Religion Safety Etc Neither can access D Time B D A C HOME 240 km 24 km 24 km 240 km Space
Cognitive Constraints on the Time-space Prism Your available opportunities comprise only a small part of all opportunities. Latent Opportunities Sonnenfeld’s geographic environment The time-space totality Possible Opportunities Sonnenfeld’s perceptual environment Your time-space prism Your time-space path Probable Opportunities Sonnenfeld’s behavioural environment
Cognitive Constraints on the Time-space Prism PEDESTRIAN: Can get to B but cannot stay there. DRIVER: Can access only C and B, the opportunities he knows exist. DRIVER: Can access either A, or B and C 24 hrs 6pm Noon 6am O hrs Neither can access D Time B D A C HOME 240 km 24 km 24 km 240 km Space
Examples of Time-Space Analysis. Suspect Surveillance and Crime Scene Reconstruction http://www.geotime.com/Product/GeoTime-(1)/Customers---Case-Studies/Ogden-Police-Department-Case-Study.aspx
Time, Space and History • Over historical time: • Prisms generally grew much larger. • More and varied opportunities exist. • Distances travelled grew substantially and space ‘shrank’. • Different areas, different development levels: • Prisms generally much larger for developed countries. • ‘Tyranny’ of space higher in less developed places. • Generally fewer opportunities in less developed places. • Over the life cycle: • Prisms are generally smaller for the young and old.
Life Cycle Influences on Time-Space YOUR CHUNK OF DISCRETIONARY TIME Neighbours Same gender cliques Neighbourhood playmates Own children Adult children Spouse Parents PRE-SCHOOL UNIVERSITY OWN FAMILY EMPTY NEST TIME AND SPACE BIRTH DEATH YOUNG YEARS ADULT YEARS OLDER YEARS MARRIAGE INFANCY WORK RETIREMENT SCHOOL Siblings Institutional caregivers Teachers Colleagues & co-workers Mixed gender groups You have the time but not the space For a short while you may have both You have the space but not the time YOUR CHUNK OF DISCRETIONARY SPACE
How Far Away Is The World? Time-space convergence refers to the perception that places have moved closer together due to increases in the speed at which we can travel between them. Principally involves discussion of the technological changes that allow such increased speeds of movement. However, also have time-space divergence – that distances appear to become longer. E.G. Halifax to Paris (direct flight) in 2001 = 5 hours Halifax to Paris in 2012 (via Montreal) = 14 hours Traffic congestion has also served to increase time of travel and thus apparent distances.
A Global Village? A related concept is that of Marshall McLuhan’s Global Village – the notion that the world has become a much smaller place due to technological changes. More than half of the world’s population lives less than 1 hour from a major city, but not everywhere: 85% of the developed world; 35% of the developing world. 95% of the world’s population is concentrated on just 10% of the world’s land. Only about 10% of the world’s surface is more than 48 hours from a large city…
Travel time to major cities (in hours and days) and shipping lane density http://bioval.jrc.ec.europa.eu/products/gam/index.htm