Chapter 6 The First Global Civilization: The Rise and Spread of Islam - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 6 The First Global Civilization: The Rise and Spread of Islam

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Chapter 6 The First Global Civilization: The Rise and Spread of Islam

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  1. Chapter 6The First Global Civilization: The Rise and Spread of Islam 7th century CE Arab followers of Muhammad surge from the Arabian Peninsula They quickly became an empire incorporating elements of classical civilizations of Greece, Egypt and Persia Islamic merchants, mystics and warriors continued it expansion into Europe, Asia and Africa Although united in the belief of Muhammad’s message, the Islamic world was divided culturally and politically The disputes did not undermine the strength of the Muslim civilization until the 14th century

  2. Clan Identity, Clan Rivalries and the Cycle of Vengeance Mobile kin-related clans were the basic social organization Only united into larger tribal units in times of crisis Survival depended on clan loyalty Leaders or shaykhs were elected by council Free warriors enforced their decisions Slave families served the leaders or the clan as a whole Clan cohesion was reinforced by interclan rivalry and conflict over water and pasturage The strife weakened Bedouin society against it rivals

  3. Desert and Town: The pre-Islamic Arabian World Arabian Peninsula inhabited by Bedouin societies Some desert dwellers herded camels and goats Others practiced agriculture in oasis towns Important agricultural and commercial centers flourished in southern coastal regions The towns were extensions of Bedouin society, sharing its culture and ruled by its clans

  4. Town and long-distance trade Cities linked the Mediterranean to east Asia Mecca was the most important city (western Arabia) founded by the Umayyad Mecca was the site of the Ka’ba (religious shrine) Medina was a second important town that was a agricultural oasis and commercial center

  5. Marriage and the family in pre-Islamic Arabia Women had key economic roles in clan life Descent was traced through female line Men paid a bride-price to the wife’s family Women did not wear veils and were not secluded Both sexes had multiple marriage partners Still, men, who carried the honored warrior tradition, remained superior Traditional practices of property control, inheritance and divorce favored men

  6. Poets and neglected Gods Arab material culture was not highly developed Main focus of creativity was in orally transmitted poetry Bedouin religion was a blend of animism and polytheism Some tribes recognized Allah but paid him little attention Instead of Allah they paid attention to spirits associated with nature

  7. The life of Muhammad and the Genesis of Islam Member of the Banu Hasim clan of the Quraysh, born in 570 CE He lived in Mecca and married a wealthy widow Khadijah Not happy with life focused on material gain In 610 CE he meditates and receives revelations from God through the angel Gabriel These revelations were later written down in the Qur’an which form the basis of Islam

  8. Persecution , Flight and Victory As Islam grows it is seen as a threat by Mecca's rulers The new faith endangered the gods of the Ka’ba With his life in danger Muhammad is invited to come to Medina to mediate its clans quarrels 622c CE Muhammad goes to Medina his skilled leadership brought new followers The Quraysh attack Medina but Muhammad’s force win A treaty in 628 allowed Muslims to visit the Ka’ba Muhammad returned to Mecca in 629 and converts most of its inhabitants

  9. Arab and Islam Islam offered opportunities for uniting Arabs Islam provided a distinct indigineous monotheism Islam supplanted clan divisions and ended feuding The Umma (the community of the fatihful, transcened old tribal boundries) Islam offered offered an ethical system capable of healing social rifts within arab society All believers