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The Rise of Spread of Islam . Chapter Six AP World History Ms. Tully . The PostClassical Period: Faith and Commerce. Spread of major world religion Development of systematic international trade Three Big Concepts. Pre-Islamic Arabia. Bedouin culture based on kin/clan/tribal networks

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the rise of spread of islam

The Rise of Spread of Islam

Chapter Six

AP World History

Ms. Tully

the postclassical period faith and commerce
The PostClassical Period: Faith and Commerce
  • Spread of major world religion
  • Development of systematic international trade
  • Three Big Concepts
pre islamic arabia
Pre-Islamic Arabia
  • Bedouin culture based on kin/clan/tribal networks
  • Shayks – clan/tribal leaders
  • Fierce interclan rivalries and struggles for resources
  • Towns and long-distance trade  Mecca & Medina
pre islamic arabia1
Pre-Islamic Arabia
  • Status of women varied by clan
  • Little art/architecture – focus on poetry
  • Bedouin religions – blend of animism & polytheism
the life of muhammad gensis of islam
The Life of Muhammad & Gensis of Islam
  • Born around 570 CE  Merchant, married Khadijah
  • One of many prophets concerned about life in Arabia
  • 610 CE – Muhammad receives revelations from angel Gabriel
  • Qu’ran basis of new religion
the fight for islam in arabia
The Fight for Islam in Arabia
  • Umayyads in Mecca saw Muhammad as a threat
  • Muhammad flees to Medina Hijra
  • 620s – Conflict between Muhammad’s Median forces & Umayyad controlled Mecca
  • Destroyed old idols, Mecca now under Islamic faith
the appeal of islam
The Appeal of Islam
  • Monotheism dominated any tribal or class divisions
  • Umma – Community of the faithful
  • Provided ethical system Qu’ran
  • Similarity/unity with other Semitic religions
the appeal of islam1
The Appeal of Islam
  • Five Pillars of Islam
    • Profession of faith
    • Pray 5x day
    • Fast during Ramadan
    • Pay Zakat for charity
    • Perform a Hajj
muhammad s successor
Muhammad’s Successor?
  • Died in 632 – who should succeed him?
  • Creation of Caliph – political and religious successor to Muhammad
  • Ali – Muhammad’s son-in-law?
  • Abu Bakr – Muhammad’s close friend
  • Ridda Wars  military campaigns against rebel Arab clans
spread of islam
Spread of Islam
  • New sense of unity & strength
  • Booty came from conquests
  • Jihad theory of conquest not true
  • Sasanian empire weak  overthrown by 651
  • Byzantines weakened by Arabs, but not destroyed
  • Rise of naval supremacy
the sunni shi a split
The Sunni-Shi’a Split
  • The main division between Sunni and Shia Muslims is originally not a religious one, but a political one.
  • Sunni Muslims: Abu Bakr was the best choice as caliph; caliphs should be chosen from the umma (Muslim community). (85%)
  • Shia Muslims: Ali should have been picked as caliph (successor should have been kept in the family). They do not recognize the authority of Sunni Muslim leaders. (15%)
  • Over centuries, differences in belief and law develop which contributes to many major disputes in the region until this day
caliphs caliphates
Caliphs & Caliphates
  • Caliph = Islamic religious and political leader
  • Caliphate = dynasty of Islamic caliphs
  • Rashidun or Rightly Guided Caliphs (632-661)
  • Abu Bakr; Umar; Uthman; Ali
  • Umayyads (661-750, centered in Damascus)
  • Abbasids (750-1258, centered in Baghdad)
  • Córdobas (756-1031, Iberia)
  • Fatimids (909-1171, North Africa, Shi’a)
  • Almohads (1145-1269, North Africa, Iberia)
  • Ottomans (1517-1922)
umayyad caliphate
Umayyad Caliphate
  • Political center moved to Damascus
  • Small Arab & Muslim aristocracy ruled over empire of non-Arabs/Muslims
  • Mawali – Non-Arab Muslim converts
  • Dhimmi – people of the book
umayyad caliphate1
Umayyad Caliphate
  • New expectations for women & marriage
  • Umayyads addicted to luxury – big reason for downfall
  • Revolts in empire began in 740 CE  Rise of Abbasid challenge
  • Abbasid defeated Umayyads in 750  hunted down all members of Umayyad family
  • ‘Abd al-Rahman escaped  formed caliphate in Cordoba
abbasid caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate
  • Moved capital to Baghdad
  • Bureaucratization of empire Wazier
  • Full integration of converts
  • Rise in the status of merchants  Growth of cities
  • Translation and preservations of classical texts
  • Key to development of great trade routes