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Adult Learning Theory

Adult Learning Theory

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Adult Learning Theory

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  1. Adult Learning Theory

  2. BRAINS A compilation of the best in: • Brain Theory • Types of Intelligence • Learning Styles • Teaching Strategies • Self Assessment No Two Are Alike

  3. In any new situation or experience, the brain asks two questions: • I wonder what this is about? • How can I use it?

  4. Principle #1: Each Brain Is Unique • Teaching Implication: 20 students, 20 different brains! • Teaching strategy: Provide instruction that allows all students to express and practice visual, tactile, and/or auditory learning preferences.

  5. Principle #2: Emotions Are Critical To Learning • Teaching Implication: You cannot separate emotions from learning. • The affective (feelings) and cognitive thinking) domains are linked. • What we learn is influenced and organized by feelings and attitudes. Fear, threat, shame, stress are not effective teaching tools. • Teaching Strategy: A safe, supportive, creative learning environment is KEY!

  6. Principal #3: Learning Engages The Entire Physiology • Teaching Implication: learning is as natural as breathing. • It is possible to inhibit & limit learning or facilitate learning. • Anything that effects our physical functioning affects our capacity to learn. • What we fuel the body with influences our capacity to learn. • How we burn that fuel also influences our capacity to learn. Good nutrition, Regular meals, Exercise, Reducing stress, • Restful sleep, Play and Relaxation… • all improve the ability to learn • Teaching Strategy: Create an environment that supports the body. • Use specific techniques, such a deep breathing to calm & focus, or marching in place to activate & integrate, guided imagery to set intention & goals.

  7. Principle #4: The Brain Is Curious • It needs to Know. Naming and Meaning Provide Structure. • Teaching Implication: The search for meaning is innate. The brain is a parallel processor. It registers the familiar and simultaneously looks for the novel. • Teaching Strategy: • Provide a safe and creative learning environment that is stable and consistent as this provides familiarity. • Incorporate opportunity for discovery, challenge and novelty.

  8. Principle #5: The Brain Is a Pattern Makerit searches for and organizes information into patterns Teaching Implication: Learners are patterning all the time. You cannot stop the process.HOWEVER Teaching Strategy: You can influence the direction of the patterning by giving the students the opportunity to link prior knowledge and experience to the material to make the information more meaningful, useful and personally relevant.

  9. Principle #6: The Brain Is A Parallel Processor The brain ceaselessly performs many functions simultaneously 24/7 The Brain Is Control Central Thoughts, emotions, imagination, predisposition, memory, movement, function all operate concurrently. Teaching Implication: No one method, techniques or strategy can encompass the variations of the brain. Teaching Strategy: What To Do? • Invite • Orchestrate • Facilitate • Coach--Mentor

  10. Principle #7: The Brain is Sectional, Integrated, Separate but Related. The Brain Processes Parts and Wholes Simultaneously. Teaching Implication: • Learning is cumulative and developmental. • Parts and wholes are conceptually interactive. • They derive meaning from each other. Teaching Strategy: Link student’s prior knowledge and experience to learning objectives.

  11. Principle #8: We Have two types of memory that serve Learning. A spatial system, which is the working memory. A rote system for procedural learning & memorization. Teaching Implication: Over emphasize on the memorization and recall of unconnected facts is an efficient use of the brain. Memorization without application inhibits understanding and the development of critical thinking skills. Teaching Strategy: Practice instructional strategies, which foster the students assessment, development, retention and application of new knowledge.

  12. Principle #9: The Brain Understands And Remembers Best When Facts And Skills Are Embedded In Natural Spatial Memory, The Working Memory. Teaching Implication: Successful learning depends on using all the senses: auditory, visual, kinesthetic, olfactory and immersing the learner in a multitude of complex and interactive experiences. Teaching Strategy: Use lots of relevant real life references that your students can relate to. Link an activity to the learning by incorporating metaphors, role-play, music, visual imagery, poetry, drawing and/or collage.

  13. Principle #10: Learning Is Enhanced By Challenge And Inhibited By Threat. Teaching Implication: When the brain perceives threat, it “downshifts”, causing portions of the brain to function below par. This “downshift” creates a feeling of helplessness, narrowing of focus, loss of concentration, and less flexibility within the person. Teaching Strategy: Provide a consistent, supportive, non-threatening environment that is conducive to learning. Use praise, thanks, support, recognition and more praise.

  14. Dale’s Cone Of LearningExperience and Learning We Tend to Remember 10% of what we read 20% of what we hear 30% of what we see & hear 70% of what we say 90% of what we say & do Our Level of Involvement Verbal receiving Visual Receiving Receiving & Participating Doing P a s s i v e A c t i v e

  15. Learning Modalities A learning modality is a “mode”, “manner” or “channel” through which is information is inputted, recorded, stored and accessed in the brain. i.e. visually, auditorally, tactually and/or kinesthetically.

  16. VISUAL: See, Look, View, Watch, Observe. “Do you see what I mean?” “What it looks like to me is…” “Look at it this way…”

  17. AUDITORY: Hear, Listen, Sound. “Do you hear what I am saying?” “Let me put it a different way.”“You are not hearing me.”

  18. TACTILE/KINESTHETIC: Touch & Feel/ Do, Movement, Act. “I need to get a handle on things.”“Let me show you. ““Give me a hand, will you?” “Let me do it. ““Can I try my hand at it?”

  19. Right Brain Dominate An Introvert The Reader Prefers to learn by reading, not listening. Reads during free time; reading material always available. Magazine subscriptions, book clubs. Prefers new information in print. Studies by reviewing notes or skimming text. Excellent recall of material that has been read. Good at homework assignments. Prefers to study alone. Remembers addresses or phone numbers better if they see it in writing. Likes to work on puzzles & workbooks. Left Brain Dominate An Extrovert The Observer Scans everything. Wants to see things; enjoys visual stimuli. Stores visual images-and good at recalling visual images. Enjoys shapes, colors, patterns, maps, pictures, and diagrams. Can recall words after seeing them a few times. Does not enjoy lectures. Daydreams: A word, sound, smell causes vivid recall & mental wandering. Can vividly describe the details of a scene/ event they observed. The Visual Learner

  20. Left Brain DOMINATE An Introvert The Listener Prefers lectures to reading assignments. Good at remembering verbal instructions/directions-even it they are written down. Likes to listen to stories, poems, music and tapes. Seldom takes notes or writes things down. Often repeats what has just been said. Talks to self, thinks aloud. Often move lips while reading. Likes out music. Likes to study with a background noise: TV, radio, and music. Usually has a good ear for music. Likes live music, concerts, and plays. Right Brain DOMINATE An Extrovert The Talker The Interactive Learner Prefers to discuss ideas & concepts. Often repeats or re-states, aloud what has been said. Asks immediately after assignment given, “What is the assignment?” Remembers an address or phone number by saying it aloud. Often needs to think aloud-thoughts must be verbalized. Needs a chance to reflect. Likes brainstorming. Likes to perform... stage, skits, role-playing, charades, plays, drama, and musicals. Likes social activities, parties. The Auditory Learner

  21. Left Brain Dominate An Introvert Tactile-Touching A toucher, hugger. In touch with self & feelings. Needs to touch, handle, and manipulate materials, objects …especially while learning/studying. Good at drawing designs. Often doodles while listening. Often “hugs’ self while listening or concentrating…strokes hands, arms or clothing. Rocks, sways, "motors". Likes computers. Stands close during conversations. Right Brain Dominate An Extrovert Kinesthetic Body Centered/Movement The “Doer”. Needs to get up and move around in order to process information. Reads using their finger to follow the line. Underlines. Talks with whole body, uses hands, animated. Good a reading body language. Likes performing, charades, acting. Good at activities & skills that are body centered: sports, mechanics, using tools. Often into physical activity: hiking, jogging, Do not like a “desk job”. Learns through movement. The Tactile-Kinesthetic Learner

  22. Four Cognitive Levels Of Association • Concrete…the actual cup… the EXPERIENCE of the actual object known as a cup. • Three dimensional picture • Symbol • Word…….”Cup” • TEACHING MOMENT: When presenting a concept or idea consider the metaphors, analogies, examples and comparisons you use. • For the concept to take hold in the mind of the student, they need to have a point of reference that is based in experience. • You cannot teach a concept if there is no experience associated with the ideas. • There needs to be an experience stored in the mind.

  23. The Four Phases of the Learning Process

  24. The Four Phases of the Learning Process

  25. The Four Phases of the Learning Process

  26. The Four Phases of the Learning Process

  27. Teaching Tips: Meeting the Needs of Adult LEARNERS Instructional Strategies Setting The Stage • Provide consistent structure and orderliness. • Employ organizational patterns that signal class has started. • Provide specific, concrete, and understandable instructions. • Have a lesson plan prepared. • Be prepared to present instructions both orally and in writing. • Have materials organized.

  28. Plan Instructional Strategies: what strategies will you use to:

  29. Step One and Two of Five Step Process Model of InstructionSequencing & Organizing Information • Provide an anticipatoryset that is linked to the lesson object and engages all students. • Link students’ prior knowledge, learning and/or experience to the lesson objective. • Break down lesson objective in a sequential manner. • Make a clear transition from lesson objective to instructional step of presenting the material, (see in putting).

  30. Presenting Material InstructionStep Three of the Five- Step Process Model of Instruction • Have material presentation timed so to insure adequate time for instruction that ADDRESSES ALL learning styles. • Link students prior knowledge, experience and or learning to the material being presented. • relate material to everyday situations when possible. • Make it concrete, (remember the “CUP”). Link to experience. • Checking for understanding includes more than asking questions and students giving the right answer. • Provide opportunity to link to abstract and reflective learning. • Allow students to ascribe personal meaning. Why is this useful for them to know? What is the pay value? • Be aware of your students responses and reactions to your pace & style of instruction. • Are students sleeping, disinterested, side talking, bored, restless, drawing, reading something else?

  31. Be prepared to adjust your pace and style to fit student needs. Could This Be You ? Are you talking too much? • Are you using yourself as a point of reference? • Are you telling too much of your story? • Are you telling your students how to do it based on your experience/learning style/preference?

  32. And if you are, then expect that they will make every effort • To get you off topic & off the lesson plan. • To you tune out. • To look for ways to prove you wrong. • To want to argue/debate/discuss your story and theirs. • Tell you why what you are telling them will not work for them. • Ask your advice. Set you up. • Run the class.

  33. What To Do? Complete a lesson plan, stick with the lesson plan. Use a variety of instructional techniques, cooperative learning strategies, multi media presentations, adjust and pace your presentation.

  34. Provide handouts/worksheets that easy to read. Distribute them throughout the lesson, pacing your flow of reading, instructional or worksheet materials. Do Not Give Out All The Resource Sheets, WORKSHEETS, Workbooks At Once. It is too distracting, too over-whelming. Students will start looking at them, filling them out, asking questions. Keep them interested in what is coming next. Instructional Materials

  35. Use a variety of instructional materials techniques to accommodate all learners. • Use multi-sensory strategies to reach students with varied learning styles. • Provide opportunities or touching, handling, acting, role-playing, repeating, writing. • Use visual aids: video, graphs, pictures, charts, collage.

  36. Help students to visualize material. The more the students can visualize and hear what is presented, the better the material will be understood. • Use: film, videos, charts, graphs, and illustrations, • flip charts, pictures, the board, write on it, draw on it. • music, poetry, word games.

  37. Learning Strategies • Students learn how to learn. • Use such transferable learning strategies as listening, para-phrasing SQ3R (survey, question, read, and recite & review.) • note-taking methods. • memory strategies. • Sentence combining. • Word association.

  38. Provide adults with problem solving strategies to increase task performance: • listening • questioning • attending to skills, (concentrating on the task) • self-monitoring to ascertain where there is a break down in understanding.

  39. Use teaching strategies to enhance the storage of information: • categorize the information by: function, size alphabetically. • comparing new information with known information, and • organizing the information by distinguishing what is important from what is less important. • Use mapping, clustering.

  40. Use teaching strategies to enhance memory: • visual imagery • clustering or chunking information into units • color coding • mapping, and • verbally rehearsing information • practice

  41. Use teaching strategies to aid in the retrieval of information: • association • mnemonics • imagery, and • setting ideas to music/rapping, rhyming

  42. Provide opportunities for students to practice skills in multiple settings with a variety of materials, since many of our students lack the ability to quickly generalize and apply skills learned.

  43. Accommodating & Modifications: • Make sure lesson plan timing allows for task completion. • Pair senior students with new students. • Pair low level readers with better readers. • Have test material read to student. • Keep worksheets and/or tests “do-able”. • Encourage students to write on every other line. • Encourage students to high light. • Allow adequate time for students to copy material from the board or video. • Have key concepts posted about the room or on flip charts.

  44. Seven Different TYPES OF Intelligence_________ Seven Different Ways Of Knowing

  45. Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence • Deals with words and language both written and spoken.

  46. Musical-Rhythmic Intelligence Deals with recognizing tonal patterns, sounds, rhythms and beats.

  47. Visual-Spatial Intelligence • Relies on sense of sight and ability to visualize; includes ability to create mental images. • Can layer images in the mind, make them three dimensional.

  48. Intrapersonal Intelligence • Relates to self-knowledge. • Relates to ability to self-reflect. • Metacognition: Deeper meaning. • Awareness of internal states of being.

  49. Body-Kinesthetic Intelligence • Relates to physical movement, coordination. • Brain and body connection integrated. • Uses brain’s motor cortex, which controls bodily motion.

  50. Interpersonal Intelligence • Has to do with person-to- person relationships and communication.