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Unit 3 Lesson 2 Ancient Rome. Geography. -Located on the Italian peninsula, in the center of the Mediterranean Sea -The Alps are in the North -The Apennine Mts. are on the eastern coast -broad, fertile plains in the north and west. Geography. Rome Geography. Rome is located:

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-Located on the Italian peninsula, in the center of the Mediterranean Sea

-The Alps are in the North

-The Apennine Mts. are on the eastern coast

-broad, fertile plainsin the north and west

rome geography
Rome Geography

Rome is located:

-On the banks of the Tiber River

-On and around seven hills

Why would this geographic location be an advantage?

early civilization
Early Civilization

-Italy was originally occupied by many different groups of people

-Two main groups were Greek colonists and the Etruscans

-The Etruscans ruled much of central Italy and Rome itself

-Ancestors of the Romans, the Latins, settled in the area that is now Rome around 800 B.C.

legend of the founding of rome
Legend of the Founding of Rome

753 B.C. – Rome founded (according to legend) by

Romulus and Remus, twin sons who were raised by a wolf.

-According to the tale, the twins’ mother was a Latin woman and their father was the war god Mars


509 B.C. – Rome became a Republic.

  • Romans drove out their Etruscan ruler, Tarquin the Proud and swore to never have a king again.
  • 451 B.C. – Twelve Tables
  • Code of Laws; used the Ten Commandments as a basis
  • All citizens were equal before the law
structure of the republic
Structure of the Republic
  • Patricians= landholding upper class
  • Plebeians= farmers, merchants, artisans, traders
structure of the republic1
Structure of the Republic
  • Senate= governing body; citizens elect leaders to vote
  • Consuls= two patricians
  • Dictator= assigned to be in charge in the event of a war
  • Voting rights were only extended to free-born males
structure of the republic2
Structure of the Republic
  • Plebeians have no say in the government
  • Eventually get to elect their own officials called tribunes in 494 B.C.
  • For 84 years, (421-337 B.C.) plebeians fought to have a role in each part of the government
social structures
Social Structures

-Roman women were nearly social equals of men

-Ran the household

-Given authority and respect

-Had personal freedom

-Owned property

-Could testify in court


-Romans were polytheistic-they believed in many gods and goddesses

-Many of the gods were adapted from the Greek gods

  • Roman calendar is full of feasts and celebrations to honor the gods and goddesses
  • Temples for worship to ask for divine assistance
art architecture and literature
Art, Architecture, and Literature

-Borrowed many cultural influenced from the Classical Greeks – Greco-Roman culture developed

-Frescoes were painted on walls

-Literature followed Greek forms and models but addressed Roman themes

art architecture and literature2
Art, Architecture, and Literature

-Built spectacular works such as the Coliseum

-Elaborate arches,

domes, concrete

art architecture and literature3
Art, Architecture, and Literature

-Aqueducts were used to transport water to urban areas

  • Rome grows strong and begins conquering the rest of Italy
  • -By 270 B.C., Rome controls most of the Italian peninsula
  • Military is made up of citizens
  • Rome conquered justly- allowing those conquered to keep their culture, customs, and government- as long as they supplied soldiers, paid taxes, and acknowledge Roman leadership
the punic wars
The Punic Wars

-Series of wars fought between Rome and Carthage (N. Africa)

-Rome fought Carthage in three wars from 264 B.C. to 146 B.C. (118 years)

the punic wars2
The Punic Wars

264 B.C. – 1st Punic War Begins. Rome won control of Sicily.

the punic wars3
The Punic Wars

218 B.C. – 2nd Punic War Begins. Hannibal invaded northern Italy.

the punic wars5
The Punic Wars

202 B.C. - Hannibal was defeated at Zama by Scipio

the punic wars6
The Punic Wars

146 B.C. - 3rd Punic War Begins. Rome destroyed Carthage and made Carthaginians their slaves.

republic to empire
Republic to Empire

133 & 121 B.C. - The Gracchus Brothers were murdered

-They had worked to help the poor, but the Senate had them killed.

-Their murders resulted in civil wars.

republic to empire1
Republic to Empire

-Civil warsbreak out to decide who should hold power. The senate wanted to keep the status quo; political leaders wanted to weaken the senate and enact reforms

-Slave uprisings throughout the republic

-Armies became loyal to their commandersbecause they gave them benefits such as captured land

turmoil in rome
Turmoil in Rome

88 B.C. – Sulla marched on Rome and became Dictator

turmoil in rome1
Turmoil in Rome

60 B.C. – Triumvirate formed between Julius Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey (3 generals)

-Cicero worked during this time to recreate the values of the Republic

58-54 B.C. - Caesar conquered Gaul and Britain.

49 B.C. - Caesar invaded Rome and defeated Pompey.

47 B.C. - Caesar invaded Egypt and appointed Cleopatra queen.

turmoil in rome2
Turmoil in Rome

46 B.C. – appointed Dictator by the Senate.

44 B.C. – named Dictator for life, later assassinated by Senate. Marc Antony got control of Rome

turmoil in rome3
Turmoil in Rome

43 B.C. – Second Triumvirate formed between Marc Antony, Octavian (Caesar’s nephew), and Marcus Lepidus.

31 B.C. – Battle of Actium, Octavian defeats Marc Antony and Cleopatra.

roman empire
Roman Empire

27 B.C. – Octavian declared “Augustus Caesar”

Beginning of the Roman Empire

-Conquered territory

-Single sovereign authority

-Controlled militarily

Pax Romana began – brought peace, built public buildings, created a lasting government, and set up civil service, allowed Christianity to spread

roman empire1
Roman Empire

27 B.C. to A.D. 68 – Julian-Claudian Dynasty – AugustusCaesar, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, Nero

roman empire2
Roman Empire

5/4 B.C. – Birth of Christ in Judea.

AD. 28 – John the Baptist executed.

AD. 30 – Jesus crucified - Roman leaders feared he would incite people with claims he was the Messiah.

-Peter and Paul continued to spread Christianity.

roman empire3
Roman Empire

A.D. 64 – Fire destroys Rome; Nero orders persecution of Christians.

roman empire4
Roman Empire

A.D. 122 – Construction of Hadrian’s Wall begins.

roman empire6
Roman Empire

c. A.D. 250 – Decline of Rome

-Bread & Circuses – rulers attempted to keep the people happy by providing food and entertainment (gladiators)

roman empire7
Roman Empire


-Disruption of Trade

-Inflation, higher taxes

-Food shortages due to overworked soil and civilwars.

-Invading Barbarians

-Lack of trustworthy generals

-Empire had expanded too rapidly

roman empire8
Roman Empire
  • A.D. 285 – Emperor Diocletian was unable to defend the Empire from Germanic invaders.
    • -Divided Empire in half.
    • -Diocletian ruled the East.
    • -Co-emperor Maximian ruled the West
    • -Diocletian tried to fix the economy and declared himself a son of a Roman god.
roman empire10
Roman Empire

A.D. 313 – Roman Emperor Constantine said Christians would not be persecuted; later made Christianity the official religion

AD. 324 – Constantine became Emperor of both halves of Empire.

Constantine moved the capital to Byzantium and renamed it Constantinople

AD. 407 – Rome leaves Britain.

roman empire11
Roman Empire

A.D. 410 – Visigoths under Alaric sack Rome

AD. 444 – Huns unite under Attila and terrorize all of the Roman Empire.

roman empire13
Roman Empire

AD. 476 – Germanic people control much of Europe. Removed last western Roman Emperor from the throne.

-The Byzantine Empire in the east continued

roman empire14
Roman Empire

A.D. 529 – Justinian Code

-Byzantine law code

-Foundation for western legal tradition