Unit 3 Lesson 2 Ancient Rome. Geography. -Located on the Italian peninsula, in the center of the Mediterranean Sea -The Alps are in the North -The Apennine Mts. are on the eastern coast -broad, fertile plains in the north and west. Geography. Rome Geography. Rome is located:
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-Located on the Italian peninsula, in the center of the Mediterranean Sea
-The Alps are in the North
-The Apennine Mts. are on the eastern coast
-broad, fertile plainsin the north and west
Rome is located:
-On the banks of the Tiber River
-On and around seven hills
Why would this geographic location be an advantage?
-Italy was originally occupied by many different groups of people
-Two main groups were Greek colonists and the Etruscans
-The Etruscans ruled much of central Italy and Rome itself
-Ancestors of the Romans, the Latins, settled in the area that is now Rome around 800 B.C.
753 B.C. – Rome founded (according to legend) by
Romulus and Remus, twin sons who were raised by a wolf.
-According to the tale, the twins’ mother was a Latin woman and their father was the war god Mars
509 B.C. – Rome became a Republic.
-Roman women were nearly social equals of men
-Ran the household
-Given authority and respect
-Had personal freedom
-Could testify in court
-Romans were polytheistic-they believed in many gods and goddesses
-Many of the gods were adapted from the Greek gods
-Borrowed many cultural influenced from the Classical Greeks – Greco-Roman culture developed
-Frescoes were painted on walls
-Literature followed Greek forms and models but addressed Roman themes
-Built spectacular works such as the Coliseum
-Aqueducts were used to transport water to urban areas
-Series of wars fought between Rome and Carthage (N. Africa)
-Rome fought Carthage in three wars from 264 B.C. to 146 B.C. (118 years)
264 B.C. – 1st Punic War Begins. Rome won control of Sicily.
218 B.C. – 2nd Punic War Begins. Hannibal invaded northern Italy.
202 B.C. - Hannibal was defeated at Zama by Scipio
146 B.C. - 3rd Punic War Begins. Rome destroyed Carthage and made Carthaginians their slaves.
133 & 121 B.C. - The Gracchus Brothers were murdered
-They had worked to help the poor, but the Senate had them killed.
-Their murders resulted in civil wars.
-Civil warsbreak out to decide who should hold power. The senate wanted to keep the status quo; political leaders wanted to weaken the senate and enact reforms
-Slave uprisings throughout the republic
-Armies became loyal to their commandersbecause they gave them benefits such as captured land
88 B.C. – Sulla marched on Rome and became Dictator
60 B.C. – Triumvirate formed between Julius Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey (3 generals)
-Cicero worked during this time to recreate the values of the Republic
58-54 B.C. - Caesar conquered Gaul and Britain.
49 B.C. - Caesar invaded Rome and defeated Pompey.
47 B.C. - Caesar invaded Egypt and appointed Cleopatra queen.
46 B.C. – appointed Dictator by the Senate.
44 B.C. – named Dictator for life, later assassinated by Senate. Marc Antony got control of Rome
43 B.C. – Second Triumvirate formed between Marc Antony, Octavian (Caesar’s nephew), and Marcus Lepidus.
31 B.C. – Battle of Actium, Octavian defeats Marc Antony and Cleopatra.
27 B.C. – Octavian declared “Augustus Caesar”
Beginning of the Roman Empire
-Single sovereign authority
Pax Romana began – brought peace, built public buildings, created a lasting government, and set up civil service, allowed Christianity to spread
27 B.C. to A.D. 68 – Julian-Claudian Dynasty – AugustusCaesar, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, Nero
5/4 B.C. – Birth of Christ in Judea.
AD. 28 – John the Baptist executed.
AD. 30 – Jesus crucified - Roman leaders feared he would incite people with claims he was the Messiah.
-Peter and Paul continued to spread Christianity.
A.D. 64 – Fire destroys Rome; Nero orders persecution of Christians.
A.D. 122 – Construction of Hadrian’s Wall begins.
c. A.D. 250 – Decline of Rome
-Bread & Circuses – rulers attempted to keep the people happy by providing food and entertainment (gladiators)
-Disruption of Trade
-Inflation, higher taxes
-Food shortages due to overworked soil and civilwars.
-Lack of trustworthy generals
-Empire had expanded too rapidly
A.D. 313 – Roman Emperor Constantine said Christians would not be persecuted; later made Christianity the official religion
AD. 324 – Constantine became Emperor of both halves of Empire.
Constantine moved the capital to Byzantium and renamed it Constantinople
AD. 407 – Rome leaves Britain.
A.D. 410 – Visigoths under Alaric sack Rome
AD. 444 – Huns unite under Attila and terrorize all of the Roman Empire.
AD. 476 – Germanic people control much of Europe. Removed last western Roman Emperor from the throne.
-The Byzantine Empire in the east continued
A.D. 529 – Justinian Code
-Byzantine law code
-Foundation for western legal tradition