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The Development of Sectarianism

The Development of Sectarianism

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The Development of Sectarianism

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  1. The Development of Sectarianism Carl Ernst Reli 180, Introduction to Islamic Civilization September 4, 2008

  2. Upcoming quiz September18 In class quiz, 25 minutes A list of 25 names and terms will be circulated a week in advance The quiz will contain 10 names and terms The task is to correctly identify and explain the significance of 5 names and terms, in relation to key issues in the course

  3. Hints for studying for the quiz Use the glossary in Egger (p. 319) Use the index both in Egger and Following Muhammad Write down notes in the margin of the book after you look things up, or take notes on your computer. Think about names and terms in relation to key issues in the course

  4. `Ali and the politics of division • Recap of first four Caliphs • Abu Bakr, 632-634 • `Umar, 634-644 • `Uthman, 644-656 • `Ali, 656-661 • Tensions created by favoritism of `Uthman toward Meccan elites (nepotism), leading to his assassination • Resentment of those who favored `Ali

  5. The declaration of Ghadir Khumm “him for whom I am the master, so this Ali is his master” “master” can also mean “client,” “ally,” etc. Was `Ali named as Muhammad’s successor?

  6. `Ali’s Caliphate: Shi’ites and Kharijites `Ali’s popularity among opponents of `Uthman Cousin and son-in-law of the Prophet, married to Prophet’s daughter Fatima, father of Prophet’s grandsons, Hasan and Husayn Seen as champion of outsiders including non-Arabs

  7. `Ali’s Caliphate: Shi’ites and Kharijites (2) • `Ali battles opponents near Kufa (Battle of Camel, then is challenged by Mu`awiya and submits to arbitration • Shi`a = “faction, party” [of `Ali, or whoever] • Shi`i (Shi’ite) = “partisan, supporter” [of Ali] • Kharijites (“seceders”), one-time supporters of `Ali who reject him when he agrees to arbitration • Kharijite movement becomes extremist; sinners [everyone else!] should be killed

  8. Ali’s death, Karbala, and martyrdom `Ali’s death “a profound shock to his followers” Mu`awiya establishes Umayyad dynasty, which is criticized for immorality Hasan gives up claim on caliphate Husayn raises revolt, massacred in Karbala (680) by army of Yazid (son of Mu`awiya) Kufans failed to support him, suffered deep guilt , origin of lamentation rituals

  9. Karbala

  10. Husayn

  11. The Abbasid Revolution • Other revolts against Umayyads • Ibn Zubayr in Mecca (682-692) • Mukhtar revolts in name of `Ali’s son, Ibn al-Hanafiyya, claimed to be Mahdi (messiah) • Doctrine of Jesus as Mahdi • After death in 700, Ibn al-Hanafiyya said to be “in concealment” • Should Imam-Caliph be related to `Ali (Alid), or more generally to the Prophet? Descendents of Prophet’s uncle `Abbas = Abbasids

  12. Abbasid strategy Abbasids claim succession to Ibn al-Hanafiyya as spiritual heirs Pretend to postpone the decision on caliph until after overthrow of Umayyads\ Abu Muslim organizes propaganda in Iran, “black banners” unfurled Umayyads overthrown in 750 with great slaughter, `Abbasids claim caliphate, to great disappointment of Alids

  13. Shi`ite identities Ghulat (“extremists”) and Zaydis Husayni Alids: descendents of Ali via Husayn become respected figures or Imams (Muhammad al-Baqir, Ja`far al-Sadiq) Development of doctrine of Imam: designation of successor, extraordinary spiritual knowledge, renouncing politics Crisis of succession after Ja`far when his son Isma`il predeceases him

  14. Imami Shi`is (Twelvers) Dissimulation of religious identity permissible under threat Death of the 11th Imam (Hasan al-`Askari, 874), doctrine of 12th (“hidden”) Imam Represented by deputies during Lesser Concealment (874-941) After 941, Greater Concealment, 12th Imam expected to return as Mahdi Dominant religion in Iran, Iraq

  15. Isma`ilis (Seveners) • Broke away from Imamis after Isma`il died • Preoccupation with esoteric knowledge • Imam believed to be concealed • Missionaries find Berbers receptive, establish Fatimid caliphate in North Africa (910), `Abd Allah recognized as Imam-Caliph and Mahdi (compare to Dune) • Shi`is as “embattled minorities”

  16. Sunnis as majoritarians Claim to follow sunna or example of Prophet, accept political authority Texts are authorities, not Imams Ritual practice: proclamation of faith, ritual prayer, alms giving, fasting, pilgrimage Tension between Shi`i emphasis on charismatic leaders and Sunni acceptance of tradition