the development of sectarianism l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
The Development of Sectarianism PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
The Development of Sectarianism

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 17

The Development of Sectarianism - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 399 Views
  • Uploaded on

The Development of Sectarianism Carl Ernst Reli 180, Introduction to Islamic Civilization Upcoming quiz September24 In class quiz, 25 minutes A list of 25 names and terms will be circulated a week in advance The quiz will contain 10 names and terms

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'The Development of Sectarianism' - Leo


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
the development of sectarianism

The Development of Sectarianism

Carl Ernst

Reli 180, Introduction to Islamic Civilization

upcoming quiz september24
Upcoming quiz September24

In class quiz, 25 minutes

A list of 25 names and terms will be circulated a week in advance

The quiz will contain 10 names and terms

The task is to correctly identify and explain the significance of 5 names and terms, in relation to key issues in the course

hints for studying for the quiz
Hints for studying for the quiz

Use the glossary in Egger (p. 319)

Use the index both in Egger and Following Muhammad

Write down notes in the margin of the book after you look things up, or take notes on your computer.

Think about names and terms in relation to key issues in the course

ali and the politics of division
`Ali and the politics of division
  • Recap of first four Caliphs
    • Abu Bakr, 632-634
    • `Umar, 634-644
    • `Uthman, 644-656
    • `Ali, 656-661
  • Tensions created by favoritism of `Uthman toward Meccan elites (nepotism), leading to his assassination
  • Resentment of those who favored `Ali
the declaration of ghadir khumm
The declaration of Ghadir Khumm

“him for whom I am the master, so this Ali is his master”

“master” can also mean “client,” “ally,” etc.

Was `Ali named as Muhammad’s successor?

ali s caliphate shi ites and kharijites
`Ali’s Caliphate: Shi’ites and Kharijites

`Ali’s popularity among opponents of `Uthman

Cousin and son-in-law of the Prophet, married to Prophet’s daughter Fatima, father of Prophet’s grandsons, Hasan and Husayn

Seen as champion of outsiders including non-Arabs

ali s caliphate shi ites and kharijites 2
`Ali’s Caliphate: Shi’ites and Kharijites (2)
  • `Ali battles opponents near Kufa (Battle of Camel, then is challenged by Mu`awiya and submits to arbitration
    • Shi`a = “faction, party” [of `Ali, or whoever]
    • Shi`i (Shi’ite) = “partisan, supporter” [of Ali]
    • Kharijites (“seceders”), one-time supporters of `Ali who reject him when he agrees to arbitration
    • Kharijite movement becomes extremist; sinners [everyone else!] should be killed
ali s death karbala and martyrdom
Ali’s death, Karbala, and martyrdom

`Ali’s death “a profound shock to his followers”

Mu`awiya establishes Umayyad dynasty, which is criticized for immorality

Hasan gives up claim on caliphate

Husayn raises revolt, massacred in Karbala (680) by army of Yazid (son of Mu`awiya)

Kufans failed to support him, suffered deep guilt , origin of lamentation rituals

the abbasid revolution
The Abbasid Revolution
  • Other revolts against Umayyads
    • Ibn Zubayr in Mecca (682-692)
    • Mukhtar revolts in name of `Ali’s son, Ibn al-Hanafiyya, claimed to be Mahdi (messiah)
      • Doctrine of Jesus as Mahdi
    • After death in 700, Ibn al-Hanafiyya said to be “in concealment”
    • Should Imam-Caliph be related to `Ali (be an Alid), or more generally to the Prophet? Descendents of Prophet’s uncle `Abbas = Abbasids
abbasid strategy
Abbasid strategy

Abbasids claim succession to Ibn al-Hanafiyya as spiritual heirs

Pretend to postpone the decision on caliph until after overthrow of Umayyads\

Abu Muslim organizes propaganda in Iran, “black banners” unfurled

Umayyads overthrown in 750 with great slaughter, `Abbasids claim caliphate, to great disappointment of Alids

shi ite identities
Shi`ite identities

Ghulat (“extremists”) and Zaydis

Husayni Alids: descendents of Ali via Husayn become respected figures or Imams (Muhammad al-Baqir, Ja`far al-Sadiq)

Development of doctrine of Imam: designation of successor, extraordinary spiritual knowledge, renouncing politics

Crisis of succession after Ja`far when his son Isma`il predeceases him

imami shi is twelvers
Imami Shi`is (Twelvers)

Dissimulation of religious identity permissible under threat

Death of the 11th Imam (Hasan al-`Askari, 874), doctrine of 12th (“hidden”) Imam

Represented by deputies during Lesser Concealment (874-941)

After 941, Greater Concealment, 12th Imam expected to return as Mahdi

Dominant religion in Iran, Iraq

isma ilis seveners
Isma`ilis (Seveners)
  • Broke away from Imamis after Isma`il died
  • Preoccupation with esoteric knowledge
  • Imam believed to be concealed
  • Missionaries find Berbers receptive, establish Fatimid caliphate in North Africa (910), `Abd Allah recognized as Imam-Caliph and Mahdi (compare to Dune)
  • Shi`is as “embattled minorities”
sunnis as majoritarians
Sunnis as majoritarians

Claim to follow sunna or example of Prophet, accept political authority

Texts are authorities, not Imams

Ritual practice: proclamation of faith, ritual prayer, alms giving, fasting, pilgrimage

Tension between Shi`i emphasis on charismatic leaders and Sunni acceptance of tradition