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QIM 501E: INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN & DELIVERY JERROLD KEMP INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN MODEL. by: SITI NOR JANNAH AHMAD (P-QM0030/10) Lecturer: DR. BALAKRISHNAN MUNIANDY. BIOGRAPHY. MODEL.

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qim 501e instructional design delivery jerrold kemp instructional design model
QIM 501E: INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN & DELIVERYJERROLD KEMP INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN MODEL

by:

SITI NOR JANNAH AHMAD

(P-QM0030/10)

Lecturer:

DR. BALAKRISHNAN MUNIANDY

slide2

BIOGRAPHY

MODEL

Dr. Jerrold Kemp is retired from his positions as professor of education and coordinator of media production and instructional development services at San Jose State University, jobs he held for 30years.

A former president of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, he

is author or co-author of five textbooks and has consulted on innovative educational projects and practices in numerous schools, universities, and agencies in foreign countries and UNESCO.

Dr. Kemp is the Year 2000 TECHNOS Press Author.

BIOGRAPHY

INTRODUCTION

DESCRIPTION

SAMPLE

SUMMARY

REFFERENCES

slide3

MODEL

1985

1994

slide4

KEMP’s MODEL

Kemp proposed this model based on the following beliefs:

The design belief: ID is a continuous cycle with revision

as an ongoing activity associated with all of the other

elements.

The four essential elements of instructional technology :

students, objectives, method, and evaluation

The characteristics of the model

1. A general systems view of development: all elements

are interdependent

2. All the elements can be performed simultaneously

3. Developer can start anywhere

4. Learning needs, goals, priorities and constraints

determine the instructional solutions.

In 1994, Kemp, Morrison and Ross modified Kemp's model

(1985), adding two more components, i.e. planning and

support service, and separating formative and summative

into different levels of the model.

slide5

MODEL

MODEL

BIOGRAPHY

INTRODUCTION

DESCRIPTION

SAMPLE

SUMMARY

REFFERENCES

1985

1994

slide6

INTRODUCTION

MODEL

The oval shape of the model gives the designer the sense that the design and development process is a continuous cycle that requires constant planning, design, development and assessment to insure effective instruction.

The model is holistic and nonlinear. The elements are not connected with lines or arrows. So that, designers may use the model flexibly to suit their own needs.

Revision encircles all nine elements of model.

The two outer ovals illustrate the feedback, which allows the designer to make changes in the content or treatment of elements at any time during the development cycle.

All programs or projects may not require all nine elements.

BIOGRAPHY

INTRODUCTION

DESCRIPTION

SAMPLE

SUMMARY

REFFERENCES

1/2

slide7

INTRODUCTION

  • Next, the designer addresses the nine elements of the model. These elements are independent of each other in that they do not need to be considered in order nor must one start with a particular element. The nine elements are:
  • 1. Identifyinstructional problems, and specify goals for designing
  • an instructional program.
  • 2. Examinelearner characteristics that should receive attention
  • during planning.
  • 3. Identifysubject content, and analyze task components related
  • to stated goals and purposes.
  • 4. Stateinstructional objectives for the learner.
  • 5. Sequence content within each instructional unit for logical
  • learning.
  • 6. Design instructional strategies so that each learner can master
  • the objectives.
  • 7. Plan the instructional message and delivery.
  • 8. Develop evaluation instruments to assess objectives.
  • 9. Selectresources to support instruction and learning activities.
slide8

DESCRIPTION

INSTRUCTIONAL PROBLEM

The specification of objectives plays a key role in systematically planning instruction as it indicates what learners are expected to do after completing a unit of instruction in precise and unambiguous terms.

Objectives are important to both learners and instructors. They help learners plan their studies and guide the instructors in planning instruction.

Objectives for learning can be grouped into three major domains: cognitive, psychomotor, and affective. These three areas are closely related.

Understanding the level within each domain helps planning instruction.

slide9

DESCRIPTION

LEARNER CHARACTERISTIC

Different students learn in different ways.

Some students profit more from a visual or verbal and some from physical activities and the manipulation of objects. Many students benefit from combinations of these three approaches.

There are many traits that differentiate learners and those different characteristics such as capabilities, needs, and interests should affect the emphases instructional planning. For example, the choice of sequencing of objectives, the depth of treatment, and the variety of learning activities.

Therefore, when designing an instructional plan, the important task for the designer is to identify those most critical to the attainment of the instructional objectives.

slide10

DESCRIPTION

LEARNER CHARACTERISTIC

  • Here are some element that designer should take alert:
    • Types of Learner Characteristics
    • General characteristics: gender, age, work experience, education, and ethnicity.
    • Learning styles; Visual, sensory, intrinsic etc.
    • Specific entry competencies: prerequisite skills and attitudes that students must possess in order to benefit from instruction.
    • Personal and Social Characteristics
  • Obtaining academic information, especially related to learners’ skills and knowledge is useful for conducting pretests, which may be required, in the instructional design process.
slide11

DESCRIPTION

TASK ANALYSIS

  • Task analysis is the most critical part of the instructional design process as it defines the content used to identify objectives, design the instructional strategies, develop test items, and create instruction. If the content is not defined, then there is little value for designing an instructional strategy, producing appropriate media, or conducting and evaluation.
  • Task analysis solves three problems for the designer:
    • 1. Defining the content needed to address the
    • instructional problem or need.
    • 2. Facilitating to identify subtle steps in the
    • designing process.
    • 3. Providing opportunities for the designer to view
    • the content from the learner’s perspective and
    • to develop appropriate teaching strategies.
slide12

DESCRIPTION

TASK ANALYSIS

  • Kemp identified three methods for analyzing content and task:
    • 1. Topic analysis.
    • 2. Procedural analysis.
    • 3. Critical incident analysis.
slide13

DESCRIPTION

INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

The specification of objectives plays a key role in systematically planning instruction as it indicates what learners are expected to do after completing a unit of instruction in precise and unambiguous terms.

Objectives are important to both learners and instructors. They help learners plan their studies and guide the instructors in planning instruction.

Objectives for learning can be grouped into three major domains: cognitive, psychomotor, and affective. These three areas are closely related.

Understanding the level within each domain helps planning instruction.

slide14

DESCRIPTION

CONTENT SEQUENSING

Sequence is the efficient ordering of content to help learner achieve the objectives. Some topics have an obvious sequence, whereas some don’t.

There are several methods of sequencing content. One is prerequisite method based on Gagne’s concept of hierarchical intellectual skills.

Second are by Posner and Strike that they suggested three sequencing strategies based on learning-related, world related, and concept-related content.

Another approach is elaboration theory based on whether the learner is developing task expertise or concept expertise.

slide15

DESCRIPTION

INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES

To design effective instruction, the designer must concentrate on how to present each individual objective to facilitate learner to achieve the objective.

Instructional strategies prescribe sequences and methods of instruction to achieve the objective.

slide16

DESCRIPTION

INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES

Based on Janassen, Eittrock, Craik and lockhart’s viewpoints on learning, Kemp identified prescriptions as a basis guide for teaching facts, concepts, principles or rules, procedure, interpersonal skills, and attitudes. Each prescription involves two components.

The first component is the initial presentation of the content for the learner.

The second components if the prescription is a generative strategy to make the content meaningful and to encourage active processing by the student. The generative strategies include recall, integration, organization, and elaboration.

slide17

DESCRIPTION

DESIGNING THE MESSAGE

Based on Janassen, Eittrock, Craik and lockhart’s viewpoints on learning, Kemp identified prescriptions as a basis guide for teaching facts, concepts, principles or rules, procedure, interpersonal skills, and attitudes. Each prescription involves two components.

The first component is the initial presentation of the content for the learner.

The second components if the prescription is a generative strategy to make the content meaningful and to encourage active processing by the student. The generative strategies include recall, integration, organization, and elaboration.

slide18

DESCRIPTION

INSTRUCTIONAL DELIVERY

Once the instructional strategies are designed, the instructional designer must make a decision on how to deliver the instruction to the target learners.

The choice of a delivery method is limited by the objectives and the instructional environment.

Tessmer and Harris (Kemp, 1999) suggested an environmental analysis to identify the limitations of the instructional environment and then determine the format of delivering instruction.

There are three different instructional delivery methods; group presentation (lecture), self-pace instruction, and small-group activities.

slide19

DESCRIPTION

EVALUATION INSTRUMEN

Evaluating learning is essential in the instructional design process. The overall purpose of evaluation is to determine the success of a course or unit of instruction.

The evaluation results can also be used for improving teaching and for identifying the effectiveness of the course.

Kemp’s model has two features: formative evaluation and summative evaluation. These two approaches go hand in hand to evaluate the whole process of the instructional model.

slide20

DESCRIPTION

EVALUATION INSTRUMEN

  • Formative Evaluation
    • Formative evaluation takes place during the developmental process. Its function is to provide input into design changes which could affect the learning of desired learning audience. Formative testing and revision are important for the success of an instructional design plan.
  • Summative Evaluation
    • Summative evaluation comes after the product is completed and the data is collected. It is used to measure the outcomes attained by the end of the course. Revision of the instructional plan would increase precision of the instruction to the learning targets or broaden the definition of the learning population.
slide21

DESCRIPTION

EVALUATION INSTRUMEN

  • Relationship Between Evaluation and Instructional Objectives
    • Whatever approach is used, there must be a direct relationship between instructional objectives and assessment measure. There are two key ideas crucial to develop ways for evaluating instructional objectives. First, obtain a good match between types of instruments and types of objectives. Second, consider using several data sources to gain as complete a picture as possible about the degree of learner achievement of each objective and the process involve.
slide22

SAMPLE

INSTRUCTIONAL PROBLEM

  • The director of Continual Education Division at CMC College decides to hold a Intervention Program for Improving the students’ English proficiency (IPM). There are 50 students, recruited from the work force, studying in the Division. Most of the students left school for quite a long time. They didn’t have many chances to learn English. Some students graduated from vocational schools have very limited basis in English. The director knows asked for your help. How would you design an intervention program for the students using Kemp model?
            • 1. Conduct needs analysis to identify students’ problems
              • -The students are unmotivated.
              • -The content taught is not applicable to their career.
              • -The students’ abilities in English vary.
            • 2. List the purpose of the planned intervention program?
              • -To increase students’ ability in English.
              • -To motivate students.
            • 3. Why should an intervention program designed?
              • -To make instruction more effective.
              • -To enhance learning.
              • -To increase students’ academic attainment.
slide23

SAMPLE

LEANER CHARACTERISTIC

  • For the IPM project, you have identified the problems based on the needs assessment. The second step is to analyze students’ characteristics as students characteristics will affect your decisions concerning the selection of objectives, lever at which to start a topic, depth of treatment, and variety and extent of learning activities to be planned.
            • Students’ characteristics:
              • 1. 50 adult students
              • 2. Age: 25 – 50
              • 3. Four language skills: below average to average. There
              • is a wide range of the language skills among students.
              • 4. Academic achievement: Most of the students did not
              • have high achievement in high school.
              • 5. English is required course. Most students are afraid of it
              • and are not interested in it. Some would like to learn
              • more because of job need or personal interest.
slide24

SAMPLE

TASK ANALYSIS

After analyzing students’ characteristics, identify a subject matter expert. In this case, the subject matter expert is an English teacher. Contact the expert(s) and discuss with him (them) about the problemsand prepare a brief summary of the target populations. During the discussion, inquire if any special equipment is needed.

  • Topic analysis on sentence patterns:
  • Basic sentence parts and patterns
  • 1. Subjects and Verbs
  • Complete subjects and
  • predicates
  • Fragments
  • Simple subjects and
  • predicates
  • 2. Subjects in different kinds of sentences
  • Four functions of sentences
  • 3. Complements
  • Direct objects
  • Indirect objects
  • Objective complements
  • Subjective complements
  • 4. Basic sentence patterns
  • Five basic patterns with
  • complements
  • *Sentence patterns with t
  • ransitiveverbs (3 patterns)
  • *Sentence patterns with ling
  • verbs (2 patterns)
  • Inverted patterns
slide25

SAMPLE

INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

  • Instructional objectives play a key role in systematically planning instruction. Objectives should be described in precise, unambiguous terms.
  • The following provides examples of instructional objectives concerning the IPM project:
          • Cognitive objectives
          • Topic: Sentence patterns
            • Given 10 sentences, the students are able to identify subjects with
            • 100% accuracy.
            • Given 10 sentences, the students are able to identify verbs with 100%
            • accuracy.
            • Given 10 sentences, the students are able to identify direct objects
            • with 90 % accuracy.
            • Given 10 sentences, the students are able to identify indirect objects
            • with 90 % accuracy.
            • Given 10 sentences, the students are able to identify objective
            • complements with 80 % accuracy.
            • Given 10 sentences, the students are able to identify subjective
            • complements with 80% accuracy.
            • Given 10 sentences, the students are able to identify sentence
            • patterns with 80% accuracy.
slide26

SAMPLE

CONTENT SEQUENCING

Content sequencing is the most effective way to help learners attain the objectives. There are some methods of content sequencing such as learning-relating sequencing, world-related sequencing, concept-related sequencing, content-expertise sequencing, and so forth.

For example, the strategy for learning-related sequencing is based on the five student learning concepts: identifiable prerequisite, familiarity, difficulty, interest, and development. The following is an example of content sequencing.

slide27

SAMPLE

  • CONTENT SEQUENCING
  • Identifiable prerequisite
  • - Teach a skill required to perform anther skill first.
  • - Teaching sentence patterns before teaching writing.
  • Familiarity
  • - Begin with the most familiar information and then progress to
  • the most remote.
  • - Teaching about the native culture before teaching about
  • foreign culture.
  • Difficulty
  • - Teach the less difficulty before the more difficulty.
  • - Teach how to write a paragraph before teaching a whole
  • essay.
  • Interest
  • - Begin with the topics or tasks that will create the most learner
  • interest.
  • - Teach astrology before teaching religion.
  • Development
  • - Ensure that the learner has reached the appropriate
  • developmental level before teaching a task or topic.
  • - Teach students to recognize phonics before teaching spelling.
slide28

SAMPLE

INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES

  • Designing the instructional strategies is probably the most crucial step in the process and can contribute the most to making the instruction successful.
  • Here is an example of instructional strategies on teaching American culture:
            • Pick a topic about holidays that students are familiar
            • with, for example, Christmas. Show students pictures by using computers.
            • Divided the students into small groups and ask them
            • to discuss about Christmas.
            • 3. Write a group project about Christmas based on their
            • discussion.
slide29

SAMPLE

DESIGN THE MESSAGE

  • There are three sections in the message design process.
  • The following example pretest is used with a unit about the origins of holidays.
            • 1. Pre-instructional strategy: using pretest as cues of the teaching content.
              • - What are the three most important holidays for Taiwanese people?
              • - What do you usually eat on Moon Festival?
              • - Who will you think about on Dragon-boat festival?
            • 2. Signaling the structure of text: using heading to signal the change of ideas and to provide the learner with a picture of how the text is organized. For example: The heading of a unit about holidays might be as follows:
              • - Important Holidays for Taiwanese People
              • - The Origins of Holidays
              • - Food and activities/events related to holidays
              • - The impact of Technology on holidays
            • 3. Use of pictures and graphics
              • - Show the students the pictures of how older people celebrated the
              • holidays.
slide30

SAMPLE

INSTRUCTIONAL DELIVERY

The most common means of delivery is the lecture. In Language classroom, the best way for instruction is self-pace learning. However, due to the time that the instructor could engage, the learning environment, the cost of delivery system, mixed delivery is applicable in the classroom.

For example, the instructor could teach complicated concepts about grammar in a lecture format. Then the instructor could divide the students into pairs or small groups for students to work on simple ideas. The instructor might use language lab or computers to delivery the teaching materials.

slide31

SAMPLE

EVALUATION INSTRUMENT

  • Two evaluation methods are used in this model, formative and summative evaluation.
  • During the whole process, formative evaluation is used to revise and test the instructional plan. Summative evaluation is used to measure the learning outcomes. An example of evaluation on the unit of teaching American culture might be as the following:
            • Formative evaluation: Using small-group testing, field testing, questionnaires, survey, or observation to refine instruction at different developmental stages.
            • Summative evaluation: Using standard tests, student self-evaluation, or feedback to assess students’ achievement
slide32

SUMMARY

MODEL

This model takes an holistic approach to instructional design which focuses on analogies and discovery type learning. Kemp utilizes all factors in the learning environment including subject analysis, the learners characteristics earning objectives teaching activities, recourses which will be utilized, support services requires as well as evaluation. This model allows for constant revision to occur.

BIOGRAPHY

INTRODUCTION

DESCRIPTION

SAMPLE

SUMMARY

REFFERENCES

CHART 1

CHART 2

slide33

CHART 1

CHART 2

slide34

CHART 1

CHART 2

slide35

REFFERENCES

Book:

Kemp, J. (1985). The Instructional Design Process. New Yrok, NY: Harper Row.

Websites:

Instructional System Desigm Model

ISU College of Education

http://ed.isu.edu/depts/imt/isdmodels/index.html

Gus Prestera’s Homepage http://www.effectperformance.com/sites/prestera/html/M4/L1%20-%20ISD/M4L1P1.htm

The Use of Traditional Instructional Systems Design Models for eLearning http://www.herridgegroup.com/pdfs/The%20use%20of%20Traditional%20ISD%20for%20eLearning.pdf

EduWiki; Kemp Design Model

http://edutechwiki.unige.ch/en/Kemp_design_model

Discovering the Instructional Design; The Kemp Model

http://michaelhanley.ie/elearningcurve/discovering-instructional-design-11-the-kemp-model/2009/06/10/

What is the Jerrold Kemp Instructional Design Process or Model?

http://www.thetrainingworld.com/faq/deskemp.htm

Instructional Design Resources;

http://web.viu.ca/lizhk/IDesign/ISDresources.htm

MODEL

BIOGRAPHY

INTRODUCTION

DESCRIPTION

SAMPLE

SUMMARY

REFFERENCES