user and user needs assessment and analysis l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
User and User Needs Assessment and Analysis PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
User and User Needs Assessment and Analysis

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 74

User and User Needs Assessment and Analysis - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 218 Views
  • Uploaded on

Instructional Design Process. A systematic approach for designing, developing and ... works with the graphic designer and creative director to incorporate multimedia ...

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'User and User Needs Assessment and Analysis' - Kelvin_Ajay


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
instructional design process
Instructional Design Process
  • A systematic approach for designing, developing and delivering strategic instruction focused on improving the learners' performance and the elimination of performance gaps that are the result of a training problem.
slide3

I.D. Process

Analysis

Evaluation

Design

Implementation

Development

i d process
I.D. Process
  • Preparations: Collect Resources
    • Subject Resources
      • materials relevant to the subject matter
    • Instructional Design Resources
      • materials relevant to the instructional development
    • Media Resources
      • hardware, software, operation manuals
i d process5
I.D. Process
  • Preparations: Learn the Content
    • refer to expert if not familiar with subject matter
    • studying resources gathered
    • includes content structure and not only the actual content
i d process6
I.D. Process
  • Analysis
    • Performance Analysis
    • Goal analysis
    • Task analysis
i d process7
I.D. Process
  • Analysis: Performance Analysis
    • reveals the gap between actual learner performance and the desired learner performance
    • determines if the gap can be eliminated through an effective training program
i d process8
I.D. Process
  • Analysis: Goal analysis
    • turns abstract statements into concrete tasks that can be taught
    • e.g. Employees should be safety conscious. How do I know if someone is safety-conscious?
i d process9
I.D. Process
  • Analysis: Task analysis
    • a sequenced description (or flowchart) of:
      • the step by step actions
      • the tools, equipment, materials, and supplies
      • any associated safety concerns
      • required prerequisite knowledge
      • acceptable standards of performance
      • key points required to complete a task
i d process10
I.D. Process
  • Analysis: Task analysis
    • understand the user activities that a product is intended to support
    • consider the goals of the product and the goals of the end users
    • ensures the need to know information is taught
i d process11
I.D. Process
  • Design
    • Learner Analysis
    • Learning Objectives
    • Skill Hierarchies
    • Course Prerequisites
    • Content Design
    • Technical Design
i d process12
I.D. Process
  • Design: Learner Analysis
    • a description of the people who will receive the training
    • this might include:
      • their skills, knowledge (experience level), and expectations
      • their reading ability
      • their attitudes and interests
i d process13
I.D. Process
  • Design: Learner Analysis
    • consider personality, individual preferences and dislikes
    • determine what the student should know or be able to do
    • assess the characteristics and instructional needs of intended users
i d process14
I.D. Process
  • Design: Learning Objectives
    • statements that define what the learner must do to demonstrate learning has been accomplished.
    • contain 3 distinct components:
      • Performance: States what a learner is expected to be able to do.
      • Conditions: Describes the important conditions under which the performance is to occur.
i d process15
I.D. Process
  • Design: Learning Objectives
    • contain 3 distinct components (cont.):
      • Criteria: States the specific standard of performance by describing how well the learner must perform in order to be considered acceptable.
i d process16
I.D. Process
  • Design: Skill Hierarchy
    • a diagram showing the relationships between the skills in the training
    • helps you determine what to teach first
i d process17
I.D. Process
  • Design: Course Pre-requisites
    • gives you a starting point
    • describes what knowledge and skills the learners must have before taking your course
    • everything between the course prerequisites and terminal objectives = course content
i d process18
I.D. Process
  • Design: Content Design
    • Generate Ideas
      • brainstorming
      • conceptual design
      • “the more ideas you generate early in the design process, the more likely it is that at least one of them will be an exceptionally good one”
i d process19
I.D. Process
  • Design: Content Design
    • generate Ideas (ideas about Information to be taught)
    • e.g.

history of computers

parts of the computer

i d process20
I.D. Process
  • Design: Content Design
    • generate Ideas (ideas about how to teach the topics)
    • e.g.

give a video about the history of the computers

show a picture of a computer system and label the parts

i d process21
I.D. Process
  • Design: Technical Design
    • Flowchart the Design
      • series of diagrams describing the operations a computer performs
      • visual representation of decisions and events
      • shows sequence
i d process22
I.D. Process
  • Design: Technical Design
    • Storyboarding
      • process of preparing textual and pictorial displays
      • depicts content and presentation
      • draft of actual instructional messages such as presentations, questions, feedback, directions, prompts, pictures, and animations
i d process23
I.D. Process

Good

Fast

Cheap

Pick any two!

If you want it fast and good – don’t expect it to be cheap.

If you want it fast and cheap – don’t expect it to be good.

If you want it good and cheap – don’t expect it to be fast.

i d process24
I.D. Process
  • Development
    • Criterion tests
    • Relevant practice
    • Content derivation
    • Delivery system selection
    • Module development
    • Sequencing
    • Tryout
i d process25
I.D. Process
  • Development: Criterion tests
    • Criterion testing evaluates whether the learner has met the objectives. A test may have a learner:
      • provide a correct answer from alternatives (multiple choice, fill in the blank, etc.)
      • do or produce something to demonstrate the objective has been met
i d process26
I.D. Process
  • Development: Content Derivation
    • content promotes complete understanding and successful completion of test items.

Objectives

Content

Test

i d process27
I.D. Process
  • Development: Delivery System Selection
    • sometimes referred to as “media selection.”
    • you decide how the training will be presented to the learners.
    • examples: simulator based, instructional videos
i d process28

Skill Check Description -demonstrate mastery of objective

Objective(s) – stated in terms learners can understand

Big picture - orients learners

I.D. Process
  • Development: Module Development
i d process29

Demo - shows what performing the objective looks like

Relevance - tells why it’s important to them

Instruction - gives information needed for objective

I.D. Process
  • Development: Module Development
i d process30

Self check - allows learners to see if they can perform the objective

Practice - gives practice in doing the objective

Feedback - gives information on performance

I.D. Process
  • Development: Module Development
i d process31
I.D. Process
  • Development: Sequencing
    • determining the most efficient order to present the modules to learners.
    • organize information in one of these ways:
      • Hierarchically (from easy to difficult, from simple to complex)
      • Chronologically
      • Spatially (left to right, top to bottom, outside in)
      • Spirally
i d process32
I.D. Process
  • Development: Tryout
    • try out your design
    • debugging
    • re-engineering
    • evaluation: intended users
i d process33
I.D. Process
  • Implementation
    • the training system is put in place and persons are trained on how to use it properly
i d process34
I.D. Process
  • Evaluation
    • focus on continuous improvement
    • this step tells you:
      • whether or not the training solved the original training problem
      • what you can do to improve the training
      • how training impacts the bottom line
i d process35
I.D. Process
  • Evaluation
research techniques
Research Techniques
  • Expert Reviews
  • Site Visits
  • Survey Construction
  • Paper Prototype Tests
  • Contextual Inquiry
  • Technology Immersion
  • Participatory Design
research techniques37
Research Techniques
  • Expert Reviews
    • provide “quick checks” of design to catch obvious problems
    • check for violations of usability guidelines
research techniques38
Research Techniques
  • Site Visits
    • provide information about the end users’ use of products in context
    • e.g. examining what makes a product retain appeal and “replayability” or how quickly children master certain types of interactivity
research techniques39
Research Techniques
  • Site Visits
    • explores end users’ preferences and other qualitative reactions to design ideas
    • goal: increase the chance that the end users will choose the product over many options
research techniques40
Research Techniques
  • Survey Construction
    • Questionnaires
    • must be age-appropriate
research techniques41
Research Techniques
  • Survey Construction

A scale for asking children to rate software on attributes of usability and engagement

research techniques42
Research Techniques
  • Paper Prototype Tests
    • low-tech prototyping
    • screen shots, sketches, or storyboard made of paper, crayons, etc.
    • interaction between researcher and end users
research techniques43
Research Techniques

Research Technique Stage/s

Expert Reviews Throughout

Site Visits Concept, Prelim Design

Survey Construction Concept, Prelim Design

Beta Testing

Prototyping Prelim Design

research techniques44
Research Techniques
  • Contextual Inquiry
    • observation technique
    • users can be, at times, nonverbal o less-reflective in discussing the world around them
    • goal: to understand what these needs may be
research techniques45
Research Techniques
  • Technology Immersion
    • immersing the users with large amounts of technology
    • provide as many options as possible
    • observing likes, dislikes, preferences on hardware and software
research techniques46
Research Techniques
  • Technology Immersion
    • a combination of technology, time, and freedom of choice offers researchers more opportunity to understand what users do and want with technology
research techniques47
Research Techniques
  • Participatory Design
    • develops partnership between designers and end users
    • low-tech prototyping
    • users: not only reactants but designers as well
research techniques48
Research Techniques
  • Participatory Design
    • adult researchers can identify new technology possibilities that might not have been considered otherwise
    • in practice: CHI Kids
project schedule
Project Schedule
  • Documentation of General Project Information
  • Listing of Project Deliverables
  • Scheduling of Project Activities
project schedule50
Project Schedule
  • Documentation of General Project Information
    • purpose of the project and what need is addressed
    • current performance gaps and obstacles
    • desired outcome
    • project constraints
    • assumption that have impact on time lines or project success
project schedule51
Project Schedule
  • Listing of Project Deliverables
    • Audio Scripts
    • Storyboards
    • Prototype Screen Interface
    • Programming Templates or models
    • Video Scripts
project schedule52
Project Schedule
  • Scheduling of Project Activities
    • All team members must:
      • know their roles and responsibilities
      • be aware of the project time line
      • deliver their project components at the appropriate time
project schedule53
Project Schedule
  • Scheduling of Project Activities
    • Schedule Reviews
      • Technical or Functional Review
      • Instructional Design Review
      • Standards Review
      • Editorial Review
      • Management Review
team organization
Team Organization
  • List Team Roles
  • Assign Roles and Responsibilities
  • Match tasks to members
team organization55
Team Organization
  • List Team Roles
    • Project Manager / Project Leader
      • manages the project including people, resources, schedule, and processes
      • estimates the project costs
      • creates and maintains project schedule
      • sets the goals for the team and defines the roles and responsibilities of team members
team organization56
Team Organization
  • List Team Roles
    • Audio Producer or Technician
      • produces all audio
      • casts talents
      • schedules audio recording sessions
      • mixes, edits, and digitizes audio
      • finds sources of music and sound effects
      • reviews the product from an audio perspective
team organization57
Team Organization
  • List Team Roles
    • Video Editor or Technician
      • digitizes and edits all video
    • Video Producer
      • produces and directs all video
      • generates final video scripts
      • casts talents
      • reviews final product from a video perspective
team organization58
Team Organization
  • List Team Roles
    • Creative Director
      • works closely with the interactive designer and graphics designer on design and development of the human-computer interface (storyboards, and scripts)
      • carries responsibility for the overall quality of the media elements of the product
      • reviews the product from a quality perspective
team organization59
Team Organization
  • List Team Roles
    • Editor
      • edits written or authored material
      • creates or reviews writing specifications
    • Evaluation Specialist
      • develops or reviews the evaluation plan and tools
      • develops or reviews the testing plan
team organization60
Team Organization
  • List Team Roles
    • Graphic Designer
      • designs and produces graphics for instructional materials
      • designs the overall visual look of the product
      • works with the instructional designer and creative director to conceptualize the main interface and content graphics
      • creates content art, illustrations, and animation
team organization61
Team Organization
  • List Team Roles
    • Graphic Artist
      • works with the graphic designer to create content graphics
      • creates screen or interface designs
      • creates illustrations and animations for the product
team organization62
Team Organization
  • List Team Roles
    • Interactive/Instructional Designer
      • prepares objectives as part of the project team
      • defines content
      • selects sequence activities
      • writes (or works with subject-matter experts) to develop instructional material
      • develops multimedia instructional design
      • develops the interactive design of the product
team organization63
Team Organization
  • List Team Roles
    • Interactive/Instructional Designer
      • works with the systems designer to design flow diagrams to support the instructional and interactive design
      • creates storyboards with the graphic designer, creative director, and video/audio producers
      • works with creative director to write audio and video scripts
      • bears responsibility for the overall quality of the instruction and interactivity of the product
team organization64
Team Organization
  • List Team Roles
    • Author (Publisher, Materials Developer)
      • produces written or electronically mediated instructional materials
      • integrates media elements and creates the product using an authoring tool
      • works with the graphic designer and creative director to incorporate multimedia into the product
      • constructs interactions and makes revisions
team organization65
Team Organization
  • List Team Roles
    • Quality Reviewer or Evaluator
      • identifies what impact an intervention has on individual or organization effectiveness
      • reviews the product from an educational and quality perspective
team organization66
Team Organization
  • List Team Roles
    • Subject-Matter Experts
      • reviews the content in various stages for accuracy and gives feedback to interactive designer
      • functions as a content expert throughout the development process
team organization67
Team Organization
  • List Team Roles
    • Systems Designer
      • designs how the product works from a technical standpoint
      • decides how the program logic and flow is structured
      • manages authors
      • works with the instructional or interactive designer to design flow diagrams
      • conducts technical reviews
media specifications
Media Specifications
  • Describes standards and design for multimedia elements such as:
    • theme and interface design and functionality
    • writing style and grammar guidelines
    • feedback and interaction standards
    • video and audio treatments
media specifications69
Media Specifications
  • Describes standards and design for multimedia elements such as:
    • text design and standards
    • graphic design and standards
    • animation and special effects
media specifications70
Media Specifications
  • Design decisions on these elements are a set of compromises that weigh:
    • theories and best practices in learning and performance support
    • knowledge of the audience and content
    • project team preferences, skills, and talent
    • project realities such as budget, time line, and stakeholder preferences
media specifications71
Media Specifications
  • Four Approaches to Learning
    • Visual
      • presenting instruction using anything students can look at (e.g. video, graphics, animation, text)
    • Auditory
      • presenting instruction using anything students can listen to (e.g. sound effects, music)
media specifications72
Media Specifications
  • Four Approaches to Learning
    • Olfactory
      • presenting instruction using anything students can smell or taste
    • Tactile or Kinesthetic
      • presenting instruction using anything students can touch or manipulate (e.g. models, actual parts or equipment)
media specifications73
Media Specifications
  • Specifications Procedure
    • Define Look and Feel of the Theme
    • Define the Interface and Functionality
    • Define the Interaction and Feedback Standards
    • Define the video and audio treatments
media specifications74
Media Specifications
  • Specifications Procedure
    • Indicate text design standards
    • Prepare the graphic design standards
    • Decide on animation and special effects