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Instructional Design Process. A systematic approach for designing, developing and ... works with the graphic designer and creative director to incorporate multimedia ...

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Instructional Design Process

  • A systematic approach for designing, developing and delivering strategic instruction focused on improving the learners' performance and the elimination of performance gaps that are the result of a training problem.


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I.D. Process

Analysis

Evaluation

Design

Implementation

Development


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I.D. Process

  • Preparations: Collect Resources

    • Subject Resources

      • materials relevant to the subject matter

    • Instructional Design Resources

      • materials relevant to the instructional development

    • Media Resources

      • hardware, software, operation manuals


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I.D. Process

  • Preparations: Learn the Content

    • refer to expert if not familiar with subject matter

    • studying resources gathered

    • includes content structure and not only the actual content


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I.D. Process

  • Analysis

    • Performance Analysis

    • Goal analysis

    • Task analysis


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I.D. Process

  • Analysis: Performance Analysis

    • reveals the gap between actual learner performance and the desired learner performance

    • determines if the gap can be eliminated through an effective training program


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I.D. Process

  • Analysis: Goal analysis

    • turns abstract statements into concrete tasks that can be taught

    • e.g. Employees should be safety conscious. How do I know if someone is safety-conscious?


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I.D. Process

  • Analysis: Task analysis

    • a sequenced description (or flowchart) of:

      • the step by step actions

      • the tools, equipment, materials, and supplies

      • any associated safety concerns

      • required prerequisite knowledge

      • acceptable standards of performance

      • key points required to complete a task


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I.D. Process

  • Analysis: Task analysis

    • understand the user activities that a product is intended to support

    • consider the goals of the product and the goals of the end users

    • ensures the need to know information is taught


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I.D. Process

  • Design

    • Learner Analysis

    • Learning Objectives

    • Skill Hierarchies

    • Course Prerequisites

    • Content Design

    • Technical Design


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I.D. Process

  • Design: Learner Analysis

    • a description of the people who will receive the training

    • this might include:

      • their skills, knowledge (experience level), and expectations

      • their reading ability

      • their attitudes and interests


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I.D. Process

  • Design: Learner Analysis

    • consider personality, individual preferences and dislikes

    • determine what the student should know or be able to do

    • assess the characteristics and instructional needs of intended users


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I.D. Process

  • Design: Learning Objectives

    • statements that define what the learner must do to demonstrate learning has been accomplished.

    • contain 3 distinct components:

      • Performance: States what a learner is expected to be able to do.

      • Conditions: Describes the important conditions under which the performance is to occur.


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I.D. Process

  • Design: Learning Objectives

    • contain 3 distinct components (cont.):

      • Criteria: States the specific standard of performance by describing how well the learner must perform in order to be considered acceptable.


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I.D. Process

  • Design: Skill Hierarchy

    • a diagram showing the relationships between the skills in the training

    • helps you determine what to teach first


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I.D. Process

  • Design: Course Pre-requisites

    • gives you a starting point

    • describes what knowledge and skills the learners must have before taking your course

    • everything between the course prerequisites and terminal objectives = course content


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I.D. Process

  • Design: Content Design

    • Generate Ideas

      • brainstorming

      • conceptual design

      • “the more ideas you generate early in the design process, the more likely it is that at least one of them will be an exceptionally good one”


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I.D. Process

  • Design: Content Design

    • generate Ideas (ideas about Information to be taught)

    • e.g.

      history of computers

      parts of the computer


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I.D. Process

  • Design: Content Design

    • generate Ideas (ideas about how to teach the topics)

    • e.g.

      give a video about the history of the computers

      show a picture of a computer system and label the parts


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I.D. Process

  • Design: Technical Design

    • Flowchart the Design

      • series of diagrams describing the operations a computer performs

      • visual representation of decisions and events

      • shows sequence


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I.D. Process

  • Design: Technical Design

    • Storyboarding

      • process of preparing textual and pictorial displays

      • depicts content and presentation

      • draft of actual instructional messages such as presentations, questions, feedback, directions, prompts, pictures, and animations


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I.D. Process

Good

Fast

Cheap

Pick any two!

If you want it fast and good – don’t expect it to be cheap.

If you want it fast and cheap – don’t expect it to be good.

If you want it good and cheap – don’t expect it to be fast.


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I.D. Process

  • Development

    • Criterion tests

    • Relevant practice

    • Content derivation

    • Delivery system selection

    • Module development

    • Sequencing

    • Tryout


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I.D. Process

  • Development: Criterion tests

    • Criterion testing evaluates whether the learner has met the objectives. A test may have a learner:

      • provide a correct answer from alternatives (multiple choice, fill in the blank, etc.)

      • do or produce something to demonstrate the objective has been met


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I.D. Process

  • Development: Content Derivation

    • content promotes complete understanding and successful completion of test items.

Objectives

Content

Test


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I.D. Process

  • Development: Delivery System Selection

    • sometimes referred to as “media selection.”

    • you decide how the training will be presented to the learners.

    • examples: simulator based, instructional videos


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Skill Check Description -demonstrate mastery of objective

Objective(s) – stated in terms learners can understand

Big picture - orients learners

I.D. Process

  • Development: Module Development


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Demo - shows what performing the objective looks like

Relevance - tells why it’s important to them

Instruction - gives information needed for objective

I.D. Process

  • Development: Module Development


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Self check - allows learners to see if they can perform the objective

Practice - gives practice in doing the objective

Feedback - gives information on performance

I.D. Process

  • Development: Module Development


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I.D. Process

  • Development: Sequencing

    • determining the most efficient order to present the modules to learners.

    • organize information in one of these ways:

      • Hierarchically (from easy to difficult, from simple to complex)

      • Chronologically

      • Spatially (left to right, top to bottom, outside in)

      • Spirally


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I.D. Process

  • Development: Tryout

    • try out your design

    • debugging

    • re-engineering

    • evaluation: intended users


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I.D. Process

  • Implementation

    • the training system is put in place and persons are trained on how to use it properly


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I.D. Process

  • Evaluation

    • focus on continuous improvement

    • this step tells you:

      • whether or not the training solved the original training problem

      • what you can do to improve the training

      • how training impacts the bottom line


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I.D. Process

  • Evaluation


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Research Techniques

  • Expert Reviews

  • Site Visits

  • Survey Construction

  • Paper Prototype Tests

  • Contextual Inquiry

  • Technology Immersion

  • Participatory Design


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Research Techniques

  • Expert Reviews

    • provide “quick checks” of design to catch obvious problems

    • check for violations of usability guidelines


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Research Techniques

  • Site Visits

    • provide information about the end users’ use of products in context

    • e.g. examining what makes a product retain appeal and “replayability” or how quickly children master certain types of interactivity


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Research Techniques

  • Site Visits

    • explores end users’ preferences and other qualitative reactions to design ideas

    • goal: increase the chance that the end users will choose the product over many options


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Research Techniques

  • Survey Construction

    • Questionnaires

    • must be age-appropriate


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Research Techniques

  • Survey Construction

A scale for asking children to rate software on attributes of usability and engagement


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Research Techniques

  • Paper Prototype Tests

    • low-tech prototyping

    • screen shots, sketches, or storyboard made of paper, crayons, etc.

    • interaction between researcher and end users


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Research Techniques

Research Technique Stage/s

Expert Reviews Throughout

Site Visits Concept, Prelim Design

Survey Construction Concept, Prelim Design

Beta Testing

Prototyping Prelim Design


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Research Techniques

  • Contextual Inquiry

    • observation technique

    • users can be, at times, nonverbal o less-reflective in discussing the world around them

    • goal: to understand what these needs may be


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Research Techniques

  • Technology Immersion

    • immersing the users with large amounts of technology

    • provide as many options as possible

    • observing likes, dislikes, preferences on hardware and software


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Research Techniques

  • Technology Immersion

    • a combination of technology, time, and freedom of choice offers researchers more opportunity to understand what users do and want with technology


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Research Techniques

  • Participatory Design

    • develops partnership between designers and end users

    • low-tech prototyping

    • users: not only reactants but designers as well


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Research Techniques

  • Participatory Design

    • adult researchers can identify new technology possibilities that might not have been considered otherwise

    • in practice: CHI Kids


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Project Schedule

  • Documentation of General Project Information

  • Listing of Project Deliverables

  • Scheduling of Project Activities


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Project Schedule

  • Documentation of General Project Information

    • purpose of the project and what need is addressed

    • current performance gaps and obstacles

    • desired outcome

    • project constraints

    • assumption that have impact on time lines or project success


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Project Schedule

  • Listing of Project Deliverables

    • Audio Scripts

    • Storyboards

    • Prototype Screen Interface

    • Programming Templates or models

    • Video Scripts


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Project Schedule

  • Scheduling of Project Activities

    • All team members must:

      • know their roles and responsibilities

      • be aware of the project time line

      • deliver their project components at the appropriate time


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Project Schedule

  • Scheduling of Project Activities

    • Schedule Reviews

      • Technical or Functional Review

      • Instructional Design Review

      • Standards Review

      • Editorial Review

      • Management Review


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Team Organization

  • List Team Roles

  • Assign Roles and Responsibilities

  • Match tasks to members


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Team Organization

  • List Team Roles

    • Project Manager / Project Leader

      • manages the project including people, resources, schedule, and processes

      • estimates the project costs

      • creates and maintains project schedule

      • sets the goals for the team and defines the roles and responsibilities of team members


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Team Organization

  • List Team Roles

    • Audio Producer or Technician

      • produces all audio

      • casts talents

      • schedules audio recording sessions

      • mixes, edits, and digitizes audio

      • finds sources of music and sound effects

      • reviews the product from an audio perspective


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Team Organization

  • List Team Roles

    • Video Editor or Technician

      • digitizes and edits all video

    • Video Producer

      • produces and directs all video

      • generates final video scripts

      • casts talents

      • reviews final product from a video perspective


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Team Organization

  • List Team Roles

    • Creative Director

      • works closely with the interactive designer and graphics designer on design and development of the human-computer interface (storyboards, and scripts)

      • carries responsibility for the overall quality of the media elements of the product

      • reviews the product from a quality perspective


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Team Organization

  • List Team Roles

    • Editor

      • edits written or authored material

      • creates or reviews writing specifications

    • Evaluation Specialist

      • develops or reviews the evaluation plan and tools

      • develops or reviews the testing plan


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Team Organization

  • List Team Roles

    • Graphic Designer

      • designs and produces graphics for instructional materials

      • designs the overall visual look of the product

      • works with the instructional designer and creative director to conceptualize the main interface and content graphics

      • creates content art, illustrations, and animation


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Team Organization

  • List Team Roles

    • Graphic Artist

      • works with the graphic designer to create content graphics

      • creates screen or interface designs

      • creates illustrations and animations for the product


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Team Organization

  • List Team Roles

    • Interactive/Instructional Designer

      • prepares objectives as part of the project team

      • defines content

      • selects sequence activities

      • writes (or works with subject-matter experts) to develop instructional material

      • develops multimedia instructional design

      • develops the interactive design of the product


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Team Organization

  • List Team Roles

    • Interactive/Instructional Designer

      • works with the systems designer to design flow diagrams to support the instructional and interactive design

      • creates storyboards with the graphic designer, creative director, and video/audio producers

      • works with creative director to write audio and video scripts

      • bears responsibility for the overall quality of the instruction and interactivity of the product


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Team Organization

  • List Team Roles

    • Author (Publisher, Materials Developer)

      • produces written or electronically mediated instructional materials

      • integrates media elements and creates the product using an authoring tool

      • works with the graphic designer and creative director to incorporate multimedia into the product

      • constructs interactions and makes revisions


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Team Organization

  • List Team Roles

    • Quality Reviewer or Evaluator

      • identifies what impact an intervention has on individual or organization effectiveness

      • reviews the product from an educational and quality perspective


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Team Organization

  • List Team Roles

    • Subject-Matter Experts

      • reviews the content in various stages for accuracy and gives feedback to interactive designer

      • functions as a content expert throughout the development process


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Team Organization

  • List Team Roles

    • Systems Designer

      • designs how the product works from a technical standpoint

      • decides how the program logic and flow is structured

      • manages authors

      • works with the instructional or interactive designer to design flow diagrams

      • conducts technical reviews


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Media Specifications

  • Describes standards and design for multimedia elements such as:

    • theme and interface design and functionality

    • writing style and grammar guidelines

    • feedback and interaction standards

    • video and audio treatments


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Media Specifications

  • Describes standards and design for multimedia elements such as:

    • text design and standards

    • graphic design and standards

    • animation and special effects


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Media Specifications

  • Design decisions on these elements are a set of compromises that weigh:

    • theories and best practices in learning and performance support

    • knowledge of the audience and content

    • project team preferences, skills, and talent

    • project realities such as budget, time line, and stakeholder preferences


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Media Specifications

  • Four Approaches to Learning

    • Visual

      • presenting instruction using anything students can look at (e.g. video, graphics, animation, text)

    • Auditory

      • presenting instruction using anything students can listen to (e.g. sound effects, music)


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Media Specifications

  • Four Approaches to Learning

    • Olfactory

      • presenting instruction using anything students can smell or taste

    • Tactile or Kinesthetic

      • presenting instruction using anything students can touch or manipulate (e.g. models, actual parts or equipment)


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Media Specifications

  • Specifications Procedure

    • Define Look and Feel of the Theme

    • Define the Interface and Functionality

    • Define the Interaction and Feedback Standards

    • Define the video and audio treatments


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Media Specifications

  • Specifications Procedure

    • Indicate text design standards

    • Prepare the graphic design standards

    • Decide on animation and special effects


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