Middle Ages : the British connection. ITCT A. Bordoni PV Classe 3tB a.s. 2013/14. Middle Ages. 476 A.D .: Fall of the R oman empire Poverty and Unsafety 622 A.D.: Beginning of the Islam expansion 673 A.D.: Siege of Costantinople Inventions : Greek fire and stirrups
ITCT A. Bordoni PV
Poverty and Unsafety
Inventions: Greekfire and stirrups
800 A.D.: Charlemagnepromotes science and education for all (even for a fewwomen), schools are founded in monasteries. The lessons are in
Grammar, logic, rhetoric,geometry, arithmetic , astronomy and music
Translation of Greekworksinto Latin
The silkroad:MarcoPolo travelledthroughout Asia.
The Via Francigena is the common name of an ancient road and pilgrim route running from France to Rome, though it is usually considered to have its starting point much further away, in the English cathedral city of Canterbury. As such, the route passes through England, France, Switzerland and Italy. The route was known in Italy as the "Via Francigena" ("the road that comes from France"). In mediaeval times it was an important road and pilgrimage route for those wishing to visit the Holy See and the tombs of the apostles Peter and Paul.
Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches. There is no consensus for the beginning date of the Romanesque architecture, with proposals ranging from the 6th to the 10th century. It developed in the 12th century into the Gothic style, marked by pointed arches. Examples of Romanesque architecture can be found across the continent, making it the first pan-European architectural style since Imperial Roman Architecture. The Romanesque style in England is traditionally referred to as Norman architecture.
A first churchdevotedto St. Michael Archangelwasbuilt on the location of the Lombard Palace chapel, butitwasdestroyed by a fire in 1004. The currentconstructionwasbegun in the late 10th century and wascompletedby 1155. The basilica was the seatofnumerousimportantevents, including the coronationsof Louis III (900) and Frederick Barbarossa (1155), among the others.
San Michele Maggiore can beconsidered the prototypeofotherimportantmedievalchurches in Pavia suchas San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro and San Teodoro. However, itdifferentiates from the others in the use of sandstoneinstead of bricks, and for the Latin cross plan with a nave and twoaisles and a muchextendedtransept.
The façadehasfive double and two single mullioned windows and a cross, which are a 19th-century reconstruction of whatwasthought to be the originalscheme. Basreliefs in horizontalbandsportrayhuman, animal and fantasticfigures.
The façadeisdecorated by numeroussandstonesculptures of religious or profane themes; they are howevernowmuchdeteriorated.
The crypt, with a nave and twoaisles, islocatedimmediately under the altar: ithousesbeautifullydecoratedcapitals and the monumentof the Blessed Martino Salimbene.
Thischurchwasbuilt in the secondhalfof the 12° centurytoaccommodate the Ultraticino Hospital, especiallymeantfor the pilgrimsto the HolyLand, and forthisreason the church and the hospital werededicatedto the Virgin ofBetlem. The pilgrimswhocameherewerehoused and treatedifnecessary to help themresumetheirjourney. Onlyanoriginalporchof the south side of the façadeof the old hospital stillexists.
TheFaçadeismadeofredbricks in the shapeof a hutwhichisdivided in threepartsseparatedbybuttresseswithsandstonecarvings.
Around the slopingroofthere are blindgalleries and interwovenarcs. In the centre the sandstoneportaliscoveredwithvines, animals and dragons.A double lancetwindow, two “oeil-de-boeuf”, a cross and a simplelancetwindow are the only openings in the façade.
Santa Maria in Betlem Church, Pavia.
The Interiorisdivided in threenaveswithvaultsupportedbypillars. At the end of the central nave thereis a dome in Lombard style. The central and right apsewererebuilt in 1953.
In the leftapsethereisalso a fresco of the Virgin Mary sitting on a throne with the Saints and Alessandro Momoli and hiswife a herfeetdating back to 1623.
In the first chapel on the leftthereis a precious altar of the 18° century, where a rare groupofwoodensculpturesissituated. Thisgrouprepresent the Virgin Mary sitting on the throne and holding the InfantJesus. Withhis right handheisblessing, whilewith the otherheisshowingan open book with the famouswords “Ego sum lux mundi”. The Virgin of the Star isrenowned and worshipped for hernumerosmiracles and the churchisvisited by a lot of pilgrimsstilltoday.
Durham Cathedral is the greatest Norman building in England. It was constructed between 1093 and 1133 in the Romanesque style. It was founded as a monastic cathedral and it is cherished not only for its architecture but also for its incomparable setting.
The Norman conquest of England in 1066 and its influence on the country contributed to the birth of the Anglo-Norman style. The culture impact is found everywhere.
The building is notable for the ribbed vault of the nave roof, with transverse arches supported by slender piers alternated with massive columns. These features appear to be precursors of the Gothic architecture of Northern France a few decades later, doubtless due to the Normans, although the building is considered Romanesque. Buttressing made it possible to build taller buildings and open up the intervening wall spaces to create stained glass windows.
Saint Cuthbert's tomb lies at the East in the Cathedral and it remains a place of pilgrimage.
TheTower of Londonis a historic castle on the north bank of the River Thames in central London, England. It lies within the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. It was founded towards the end of 1066 as part of the Norman Conquest of England. The Tower of London has played a prominent role in English history.
The Tower has served variously as an armoury, a treasury, a menagerie, the home of the Royal Mint, a public records office, and the home of the Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom. The White Tower was built by William the Conqueror in 1078, and was a resented symbol of oppression, inflicted upon London by the new ruling elite.
The architecture is Gothic-Norman.
The Imperial State Crown is one of the Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom and symbolises the sovereignity of the monarch. The crown has existed in several versions since the 15th century. The modern version of the Imperial State Crown is of a design somewhat similar to that of St Edward's Crown, but shorter and encrusted with jewels: it includes a base of four crosses, above which are four half-arches surmounted by a cross. Inside there is a purple velvet cap with an ermine border. The Imperial State Crown includes many precious gems, including 2,868 diamonds: pearls, sapphires, emeralds, and rubies.
The crown includes several famous jewels and Queen Elizabeth’s Pearls.
When it is not in use, it is kept with the other Crown Jewels on display at the Jewel House in the Tower of London.
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