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High Middle Ages 1000-1300 A.D. PowerPoint Presentation
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High Middle Ages 1000-1300 A.D.

High Middle Ages 1000-1300 A.D.

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High Middle Ages 1000-1300 A.D.

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  1. High Middle Ages1000-1300 A.D. • Last invasions (Viking and Magyar) end in 10th Century • Greater security leads to the resumption of society on a larger scale • Corporate life begins to grow

  2. Improved farming techniques • Iron tipped Plow replaces wood • Harness for Horse • Three Field system replaces two field • Leads to increase in food production • Allows population to grow • Actually now have a surplus population-not everyone needs to produce food.

  3. Scholasticism and Universities • Education in Early Middle Ages • Society organized for war and defense • Slight support for education • Improved Economy and stability led to the possibility for education • The Scholastic method was the method used to gain knowledge • Latin was the language use in all Universities

  4. Key Concept: • Medieval thought began with the existence of God and the truth of his revelation as interpreted by the Church. The Medieval mind rejected the fundamental principle of Greek Philosophy-the autonomy of reason. Without the guidance of revealed truth, reason was seen as feeble.

  5. Scholastic Purpose • Provide rational explanation for what was believed on faith • Prove reason and faith were harmonious • Reconciled traditional Christian teaching and the new body of information recovered from the Ancient Greeks after 12th Century • Use human reason (Aristotle) to understand the supernatural content of Christian revelation

  6. Key Term: Dogma • Definition: • A doctrine or body of doctrines concerning faith or morals formally stated and authoritatively proclaimed by a Church

  7. Influences on Scholasticism • Aristotle • Translation of Aristotle into Latin opened up new world of information that could not be ignored • Aristotle was the Authority on all areas other than religion

  8. Scholastic Philosophy • Convinced of fundamental harmony between reason and revelation • When conflicts arose between faith and reason faith was supreme • Philosophy was the servant to theology • Theology defined as the intellectual study of religion • Theology known as the “Queen of the sciences”

  9. Scholastic Method • Reliance on authority • Use of precision in language • Use of Deductive Logic • From large accepted truth to smaller truths • Not at all like the scientific method

  10. Scholastic Philosophers • Peter Abelard 1079-1142 • Wrote Sic et non “Yes and No” • Utilized systematic doubting • “By doubting we come to questioning and by questioning we perceive the truth” • Use of dialectics: Any systematic reasoning that juxtaposes two contradictory ideas and seeks to resolve their conflict

  11. Scholastic Philosophers (cont.) • St. Thomas Aquinas 1225-1274 • Summa Theologica • Foremost Scholastic Philosopher • Created a synthesis of western philosophies and attempted to reconcile to Christian belief • Drew distinction between faith and reason • Reason can demonstrate many basic principles such as the existence of God, Trinity can’t be proved by logic

  12. Medieval Architecture From Romanesque to Gothic

  13. Romanesque Architecture • Viking invaders had burned wooden Churches in the 9th and 10th Centuries • After 1000 AD Church building increased dramatically • Fire proofing was essential • Stone replaced wood building • Romanesque-heavy roof, thick walls, little light

  14. Gothic Architecture • Pointed arch, flying buttress • Thinner walls, Stained glass • Uninterupted light • Built Cathedrals to glorify God • Huge time and $ investment

  15. Gothic Architecture cont. • Main alter faced East, toward Jerusalem • West faced setting sun-Last judgment • North-least light; old testament • South-most light; new testament

  16. Medieval Art • Art in the Middle Ages served a religious function which was to lift the mind toward God. • It depicted a spiritual universe in which the supernatural was the supreme reality • Left side of painting depicted the damned, right side the saved

  17. Useful definitions • Renaissance is a French word meaning rebirth- rebirth in that they resumed a civilization like that of the Greco-Romans • The basic institutions of Europe originated in the Middle Ages • Renaissance marked a new era in thought and feeling • It pertained to high culture and hence to a limited number of persons

  18. Definitions Continued • Italian Renaissance involved the whole area of culture which is neither theological nor scientific but concerns moral and civic questions about what man ought to be or ought to do. • Purely secular attitude appeared • Life was no longer seen by leading thinkers as a brief preparation for the life after

  19. Why Italy? • Geography is Destiny • Benefits of Medieval trade routes • Venice and Genoa

  20. Why Italy Continued • Merchants made fortunes in commerce • Lent money to Princes and Popes and thus made more money as bankers • Rejoiced in the beautiful things and psychological satisfactions that money could buy • Outlook was secular

  21. Why Italy Cont. • Italian towns were independent city –states • Italy did not exist as a unified state • Towns competed against each other-civic pride

  22. Changing Attitudes • What arose in Italy was a new conception of man himself • This world was so exciting that another world need not be thought of • What captivated the Italians was a sense of mans tremendous powers. • Formerly there was a disdain for the things of the world. Now a life of involvement was also prized.

  23. Terms and Quotes • “The whole glory of man lies in activity” Leonardo Bruni • Virtu: The quality of being a man- demonstration of human powers

  24. Italian Humanism The greatest writers wrote about man, not God, placing man in the foreground, exalting him, praising him, questioning him, criticizing him, but not despising him and his worldly city as the Augustinians had been doing for a thousand years. The Birth of “Literature”

  25. Birth of Humanism • The literary movement of the Renaissance • Modern literature first appeared in the 14th and 15th centuries in Italy • A class of men who saw themselves as writers • Humanists used writing to please and amuse their readers

  26. Humanism: Thoughts • Humanism was the scholarly study of the Latin and Greek classics and the ancient Church fathers for both their own sake and in the hope of a rebirth of ancient norms and values • Unlike their scholastic rivals, Humanists were less bound to tradition; they did not focus all of their attention on summarizing and comparing the views of recognized authorities on a text or a question, but went directly to the original sources themselves. Their most respected sources were classical and biblical, not medieval.

  27. Humanists • Wrote a good deal in Latin • Preferred Latin style of the classical Roman period • Complained that Middle Age Latin was too monkish, scholastic • Also wrote in the Vernacular, Italian • Definition: Vernacular • Using a language native to a region rather than a literary language (Italian in place of Latin) • In the ancient writers the humanists found a new range of interests, discussion of political and civic questions

  28. Neo Platonism • Plato had expressed a very flattering view of human nature • Eternal sphere of being and a perishable world in which humans actually lived • Pico Della Mirandola’s oration on the dignity of man was very platonic. • Allegory of the Cave

  29. The birth of Italian HumanismPetrarch, Dante, Boccaccio

  30. Francesco Petrarch 1304-1374 • “The first man of letters” • First Italian humanist • Trained for law and the clergy he criticized both professions for their “Scholasticism” • Wrote Sonnets to Laura-clearly meant to be literary productions • Wrote in Italian to popularize his ideas • Along with Boccaccio sought to create the renaissance

  31. Outside events • The invention of the printing Press • The fall of Constantinople in 1453

  32. Petrarch • His critical textual studies, elitiism and contempt for the allegedly useless learning of the scholastics were features that many later humanists shared

  33. Sonnets to Laura • May or may not have existed • Lara in Latin means fame • Married to another man • Inspiration for Poetry

  34. Petrarch, Cont. • Literature became a kind of calling • A consideration of moral philosophy no longer subordinate to theology • How human beings should adjust to the world • what a good life could or ought to be, • where the genuine rewards for living were to be found

  35. Other Italian Humanists Christine de Pisan 1363-1434 The city of ladies chronicle of great woment in history Leonardo Bruni- Florentine Historian. Showed a need for authentic sources Pico della Mirandola Oration on the dignity of man Baldasare Castiglione1478-1529 The Book of the Courtier “must converse with facility, be proficient in sports, know how to dance and appreciate music, should know Latin and Greek Macchiavelli The Prince 1513

  36. Boccaccio 1313-1375 Friend of Petrarch Pioneer in humanist studies Decameron, 100 often bawdy tales told by three men and 7 women Stinging social commentary and a sympathetic look at human behavior

  37. Humanist Education • Medieval schooling had been chaotic and repetitious • Renaissance separated students by age and class • Latin was the Principal subject with Greek added • Learned Latin and Greek to read the ancient writings

  38. Dante Alighieri 1265-1321 • Divine Comedy written in Italian in 1300 • Broken into three parts, Hell, Purgatory and heaven • The classical poet Virgil leads him through Hell and Purgatory • His muse Beatrice leads him through heaven • Allegorically, symbolically and mystically his vision of a universe structured by reason and unified by faith came together and worked

  39. Italy’s Political Decline The French Invasions from 1494-1527

  40. Treaty of Lodi 1454 • Milan and Naples into an alliance with Florence • Against • Venice and the Papal States • Balance of power

  41. Conflict • Milanese Despot • Hostilities between Milan and Naples resumed • Treaty of Lodi ended-Naples supported by Pope Alexander VI and Florence prepared to invade Milan

  42. Ludovico il Moro • Milanese Despot • Appealed to aid from the French • Invited French to invade Italy and revive their dynastic claim to Naples • France also had claims on Milan

  43. Charles VIII of France1483-1498 • Responded quickly to Ludovicos call • Crossed the Alps through Florence and the Papal States to Naples

  44. Giraloma Savonarola1452-1498 • As Charles approached Florence the Medici ruler was thrown out in favor of savonarola • Savonarola convinced the Florentines that the French Kings arrival was a long delayed and fully justified divine judgment for their immorality