British North America Unit 2
The BIG Questions 1.Where and why did colonists settle in British North America after the fall of New France? 2. How did key people and events shape the new British colonies? 3. What were the causes, events and results of the War of 1812?
Question #1 Where and why did colonists settle in British North America after the fall of New France?
Quebec and Its people After New France fell to British control in the 1760s, many of the French pioneers who were in the area were afraid of what would become of their culture and ways of life. The Quebec Act (1774) protected many of their ways, so it was possible for a French colony to survive in the area that was renamed as Quebec.
There were many different groups within Quebec, and each group wanted something different from the British government.
The ‘Carrot’ or the ‘Stick’? • The British government could have dealt with these groups in two different ways. READ: pgs H 72-73 in textbook • Record notes about : • “Stick Supporters” • “Carrot Supporters” ANSWER What do YOU think?, Q1-2 and HAND IN
How the British dealt with the Groups • The British chose to use the ‘Carrot’, instead of the ‘Stick’. In 1763, King George III of Britain declared a Royal Proclamation. • It related to all of Britain’s colonies in North America.
Royal Proclamation affected Quebec because: • Britain now controlled all France’s territories in regions including New France and Acadia • English civil law would replace French law. The seigneurial system was abolished. • The rest of New France would be First Nations territory and all Canadiens living in First Nations territory had to leave • Anyone involved in the fur trade in the First Nations territory had to have a licence from the crown
The Royal Proclamation worked to coax the French at times and push at others. BUT!!!!!! • Do you think this was the best way to make everyone happy?
The Thirteen Colonies • The British had 13 colonies that stretched south along the eastern coast, that were filled with many different people with many different ideas. Each of the colonies were quite different from one another because of the resources they had and the type of people that founded them.
MAP • 13 colonies: • Maine • New Hampshire • Massachusetts • Rhode Island • Connecticut • New York • Pennsylvania • New Jersey • Virginia • Delaware • Maryland • North Carolina • South Carolina • Georgia
The northern colonies had large forests and winters were severe • The middle colonies had rich agricultural lands for grains and vegetables • The southern colonies were hot and rich crops, like cotton and rice, grew well there. • There were differences in religion too, from Protestants, Roman Catholics and Pilgrims
Although the colonies had all these differences, there was a growing sense that they were becoming strong and independent from Britain as a united force. • During the Seven Years’ War, the British began to increase taxes in the colonies • This leads to protests, like the Boston Tea Party
The Ohio Valley • This area was key to North American expansion for the 13 colonies, the Canadiens and the First Nations • The Royal Proclamation cut this area off for the 13 colonies, and would prove crucial in their future.
The Quebec Act (1774) • This replaced the Royal Proclamation, and set out to establish French rights • It was good for the Canadiens, but upset many of the other groups INSERT CHART
The Quebec Act was good for the Quebecois, but the 13 colonies were OUTRAGED • In 1776, the 13 colonies stated the AMERICAN DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE • Representatives from the 13 colonies held a meeting in Philadelphia, called the Continental Congress. • On July 4th, 1776 they declared that the United States of America was an independent nation and war was declared against Britain • The American Revolutionary war lasted until 1783
Which side would Quebec take? • The Continental Congress sent appeals to the Quebecois to join the Americans • The Quebecois did not give immediate support to the Americans, so the Americans invaded! • Generals Montgomery and Benedict Arnold led troops against Montreal and Quebec, but were defeated by both the weather and the fighters • It was clear now that Quebec would not support them against the British
United Empire Loyalists • Not everyone in the 13 colonies were against the British. • United Empire Loyalists were against the idea of independence, and therefore went against the Patriots, who were for it.
As the battles between the British and Patriots became fiercer, it became clear that the Patriots were winning • The Loyalists had been persecuted by the Patriots; their homes were burnt and families were publicly humiliated • To gain more support, the British promised Free-Land in Quebec, Nova Scotia and P.E.I. to Loyalists, for fighting with the British • About 50 000 Loyalists settled in the area and worked hard to build and support the regions
The Second Treaty of Paris (1783) • By 1783, the Americans had militarily defeated the British. • In order to find peace between the two groups, Benjamin Franklin and other representatives negotiated with Britain and on September 3, 1783, a second Treaty of Paris was signed It outlined: • Britain recognized American Independence • US got control of the Ohio Valley • Americans could fish off the coast of Quebec and other British colonies • All British troops had to leave the United States • Loyalists could no longer be prosecuted, and their property had to be returned
SO! How did Britain deal with the Various Groups • Quebecois- Quebec Act • Gave them rights to religion, property and traditional ways of life • First Nations- Small Pox • Gave them highly infectious disease, which basically destroyed their societies and military strength • 13 colonies – American Revolution • Tried to tax the colonies • Colonies revolted • British lost control of the United States and now faced military competition in North America
Back to the BIG QUESTION 1 Where and why did colonists settle in British North America after the fall of New France?
Big Question #2 How did key people and events shape the new British colonies?
The Loyalists • Quebec was not the only British colony in the area during the late 1700s. There was also Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. These groups made up British North America. • The Loyalists came to British North America to escape persecution in the United States.
The Loyalists were a mixed group, that had little in common, except that they were opposed to American Independence.
The Loyalists’ early years in BNA were not always easy. • Many sacrificed their entire way of life • Many faced isolation, away from their family and friends • HOWEVER! They did receive assistance from the Crown for resettling • Living conditions improved for many • Their role in keeping BNA loyal to the Crown was highly valued • To honour them, the Crown declared that they would put U.E., after their name to distinguish them from others
Where the Loyalists Settled • They were concentrated in ‘three’ locations • Nova Scotia • New Brunswick • Quebec • Lake Ontario and Lake Erie Regions
1. Nova Scotia • In 1776, the first shipload of Loyalists left New York for Nova Scotia • In all, about 30 000 Loyalists settled in Nova Scotia • Many belonged to minority groups,mostly religious, and felt they needed protection. • They were the: Huguenots(French Protestants) and Quakers(opposed all violence and war)
IMPORTANT PERSON • BOSTON KING (1783) • Black Loyalists also fought and received land, but White society in Nova Scotia rejected them, and many ended up creating their own separate communities. • Boston King was part of a group that formed Birchtown, a Black community near Shelburne, Nova Scotia • It would become the largest free Black community in North America
King Continued • Free Black Loyalists who lived in Birchtown were paid less than normal rate for the little work they could find • Unemployed and poor white Loyalists and soldiers took their frustration out on the Blacks in Shelburne • 1784: they attacked and rioted through Birchtown • King had escaped slavery in South Carolina • He was disheartened by the treatment of his people in Nova Scotia, so he and his wife left in 1791
2. New Brunswick • New Brunswick was a part of Nova Scotia until 1784 • Many of the same people and groups settled there, as Nova Scotia
3. Quebec • Some Loyalists from New England migrated to the St. Lawrence region of Quebec • Many settled east of Montreal, because everywhere else had already been settled • This area is now known as The Eastern Townships
4.Lake Ontario and Lake Erie Regions • Loyalists had a huge impact on this region, as before the 1780s only First Nations lived there • Many of the regiments of British soldiers that had to flee the United States, disbanded in the Niagara and Kingston areas • There were also many important groups of First Nations who had fought with the British, that relocated to the region
IMPORTANT PERSON JOSEPH BRANT ( Thayendanegea) - He was one of the best known leaders of the Mohawk people - His people were originally from New York, but he believed their future lay in BNA - HOWEVER! His lands had been signed away to the Americans in the Second Treaty of Paris, and his people were betrayed by the British
Brant con’t • The British Commander in Quebec realized the injustice done to Brant and his people, and so opened up about 2750 square kilometres along the Grand River for their settlement • It was known as THE SIX NATIONS RESERVE, and was to remain as a reward for the loyalty that Brant showed the crown • Following governors had different ideas, and slowly over time the land was taken away bit-by-bit • Cambridge and Brantford sit on parts of the reserve today
4. Continued • Development of the Lake Ontario and Erie Regions • Colonel John Butler moved his regiment into the region in 1784 • His followers started the town of Newark, now known as Niagra-on-the-Lake • Civilian loyalists set up small communities, which later grew into large cities (Burlington, Kingston, etc.) • There were many skilled trades in the communities, so trade was good • The United Empire Loyalists would succeed in their new communities, regardless of their losses in the war
Loyalist Expand • By the late 1790’s, there were about 12 000 Loyalists settled in what is now, Southern Ontario • They felt entitled to support from the Crown, because of their loyalties • Fairly soon, they began to ask the government to change the law of Quebec, to be more English.
How the Loyalists Changed the Face of Quebec • Textbook H101-H105 • Read and complete the questions provided • SUBMIT To me WHEN COMPLETED
Question 3 What were the causes, events and results of the War of 1812?
Causes • Long Term Causes • Napoleonic Wars (1799-1815) • France was defeated, but got revenge by supporting American troops • This upset the British, and caused conflict • Immediate Causes • British Interfered with American Merchant Ships • Americans were trying to expand into the Northwest • Americans accused British of supplying First Nations with firearms • Americans were spreading propaganda against the Canadas
EVENTS • In June of 1812, America declared war on Britain. The War of 1812 was fought in many land battles, skirmishes and naval battles on the Great Lakes. • Although the odds were against the British, sometimes it just takes a strong leader to change the tides of war. The British had two: • Sir Isaac Brock, a British Officer • Tecumseh, a Shawnee Chief
Sir Isaac Brock/ Tecumseh • Early in the war, Brock commanded the troops in Upper Canada, and with Tecumseh he planned to stop the Americans before they could invade from the south. • They decided to attack various American forts, only weeks after war was declared, catching the American troops completely unprepared. • Fort Michlimimackinac was captured without a single shot being fired
The Battles • Detroit - With a force of only 400 soldiers and 600 First Nations, Brock and Tecumseh went to battle with the American General, General Hull. - Hull had over 2 500 soldiers at Fort Detroit
1. Con’t • Brock decided to use deception to scare General Hull, dressing his militia in red soldiers’ uniforms, and had each man set his own cooking fire, instead of the usual 1 fire/3 or 4 men. • This made it seem like Brock had thousands, rather than just hundreds of soldiers • Tecumseh did the same with his warriors, having them constantly yell out battle cries to frighten the Americans • General Hull feared for the lives of his men, and so surrendered without a battle even occurring • Detroit secured the west and allowed for the defence of other parts of Upper and Lower Canada
2. Queenston Heights • One of the most famous battles, fought not far from what is now Niagra-on-the-Lake • In October 1812, American soldiers moved from New York State into the area and captured the high ground around Queenston • General Brock rushed to the attack, using a small force to push the Americans back • HOWEVER!! A sniper shot Brock and he died almost instantly • His attack slowed the Americans enough to allow other British forces to advance and push the Americans back to New York • The British took almost 1000 American prisoners, with very little loss
3. Beaver Dams (Thorold) • June 24, 1813 • 550 Americans were camped at Queenston • The commander of the troops and his officers were stationed at an inn, owned by James and Laura Secord • Laura overheard the commander’s plans for attack, and in an act of bravery, rushed to tell British Colonel Fitzgibbon about the planned attack at Beaver Dams • Due to Laura’s bravery, Fitzgibbons 80 soldiers and 250 First Nations men were able to prepare and then successfully defeat the Americans Video