Parts of a Cell - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Parts of a Cell

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  1. Parts of a Cell

  2. Cell Wall • Found only in plant cells • Gives support to a cell • Made of complex sugars called cellulose

  3. Cell Membrane • All cells have a membrane • Protective barrier that encloses a cell • In a plant cell, the membrane is JUST inside the cell wall. In animal cells, the membrane is the outermost layer • Contains proteins, lipids and phospholipids • Decides what goes in and out of the cell-nutrients goes in, waste goes out • Protects the cell from the outside environment

  4. Cytoskeleton • Web of proteins in the cytoplasm • Acts as a muscle and a skeleton • Keeps the membrane from collapsing • Helps some cells move This picture shows a cell with cytoskeleton

  5. Nucleus • Large organelle • Contains the cell’s DNA (which is information on how to make a cell’s proteins-proteins control chemical reactions in a cell) • Nucleus is covered by two membranes • “Control center” of the cell • A nucleus could contain a nucleolus which is where a cell begins to make ribosomes

  6. Ribosomes • Organells that make up protein • Smallest of all organelles • Not covered by a membrane • Proteins made within the ribosomes • All cells have ribosomes

  7. Endoplasmic Reticulum • Many chemical reactions take place here • Nicknamed ER-is a system of folded membranes in which proteins, lipids, and other materials are made • It’s either rough ER or smooth ER • Rough ER is covered in ribosomes-usually found near the nucleus • Smooth ER makes lipids, and breaks down toxic materials that could damage the cell

  8. Mitochondria • Main power source of the cell • This is where sugar is broken down to produce energy • Covered by 2 membranes • Energy released by mitochodria is stores in ATP • Most ATP is made in the inner membrane of mitochondria • The are the size of bacteria

  9. Chloroplasts • Found in plant and algae cells • Organells in which photosynthesis takes place • Have 2 membranes and their own DNA • Chloroplasts are green (because they contain chlorophyll which is a green pigment)

  10. Golgi Complex • Packages and distributes proteins • Looks like smooth ER • Lipids and proteins from the ER are sent to the Golgi Complex where the lipids and proteins are assigned to do different jobs • Processes and transports proteins and other materials OUT of the cell

  11. Vesicle • Bubble that forms from the Golgi complex is a vesicle • A vesicle is a small sac that surrounds material to be moved into OR out of the cell • All eukaryotic cells have vesicles • Also move materials within a cell • Different vesicles have different jobs

  12. Lysosomes • Vesicles responsible for digestion in a cell • Contain digestive enzymes • Destroy worn-out organelles, get rid of waste, and protect the cell from foreign invaders • Found mainly in animal cells

  13. Vacuoles • Another type of vesicle • In plants and fungi, some vacuoles act as lysosomes-they store digestive enzymes and aid in digestion • The central vacuole in plant cells store water and other liquids • Some plants wilt when their central vacuole loses water

  14. Animal Cell

  15. Plant Cell