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The students will explain how geography impacted civilizations in Mesopotamia. The students will identify the key developments of ancient Egyptian civilization. Complete Warm ups Read/Discuss Ch 2 Sections 1&2 Complete Section 1&2 Study Guides Complete Hammurabi Cause/Effect Activity.

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Objectives

The students will explain how geography impacted civilizations in Mesopotamia.

The students will identify the key developments of ancient Egyptian civilization.

Complete Warm ups

Read/Discuss Ch 2 Sections 1&2

Complete Section 1&2 Study Guides

Complete Hammurabi Cause/Effect Activity

Objectives


Land between two rivers

LAND BETWEEN TWO RIVERS” civilizations in Mesopotamia.


Ancient mesopotamia definitions
ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- DEFINITIONS civilizations in Mesopotamia.

  • CITY STATES- self-governing unit made up of a city and its surrounding villages and farmland.


Ancient mesopotamia geography
ANCIENT civilizations in Mesopotamia.MESOPOTAMIA-GEOGRAPHY

  • LOCATED BETWEEN THE TIGRIS-EUPHRATES RIVERS

  • BOTH RIVERS FLOW INTO THE PERSIAN GULF

  • LOCATED IN PRESENT DAY IRAQ


Fertile crescent
Fertile Crescent civilizations in Mesopotamia.


Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia civilizations in Mesopotamia.


Ancient mesopotamia geography1

POSITIVE civilizations in Mesopotamia.

abundant amount of clay

easy till-able soil

water supply from Tigris-Euphrates Rivers

NEGATIVE

few natural resources

minimal protection from deserts and mountains

ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- GEOGRAPHY


City states
City-States civilizations in Mesopotamia.


Ancient mesopotamia sumerian civilization
ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION civilizations in Mesopotamia.

  • BELIEVED TO BE SETTLED CA. 3000 B.C.

  • DIVIDED INTO CITY-STATES

  • HELPED TO DEVELOP THE FIRST FORM OF ORGANIZED RELIGION

  • CREATED ONE OF THE EARLIEST FORM OF WRITING


Ancient mesopotamia sumerian city states
ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- SUMERIAN CITY-STATES civilizations in Mesopotamia.

  • ALWAYS IN CONSTANT CONFLICT OVER WATER RIGHTS AND LAND

  • CREATED WALLS FOR PROTECTION, WITH MOATS ALONG THE OUTSIDE

  • FARMS WERE LOCATED ALONG THE OUTSIDE OF THE CITY


Sumerians invented
Sumerians civilizations in Mesopotamia. invented:

  • Wheel

  • Time – 60 minutes in an hour, 60 seconds in a minute

  • 12 month lunar calendar

  • arch

  • ramp


Religion
Religion civilizations in Mesopotamia.


Ancient mesopotamia sumerian religion
ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- SUMERIAN RELIGION civilizations in Mesopotamia.

  • Ziggurats: pyramid site of the temple of the main gods.

    • Each city-state had their own gods and goddesses

    • Sun god – most important.

  • Life after death was an extension of life.


Ziggurat holy mountain
Ziggurat civilizations in Mesopotamia. – Holy Mountain


Ziggurat
Ziggurat civilizations in Mesopotamia.

  • Large pyramid shaped structures

  • Connected to heaven and earth

  • Ziggurat: “center for learning and religion”


How to build a ziggurat
How to Build a Ziggurat civilizations in Mesopotamia.

How to Build a Ziggurat


Sumerian religion
Sumerian Religion civilizations in Mesopotamia.

  • Monotheism: worshiping one god.

    • “Mono” – means one

  • Polytheism: worshiping many gods.

    • “Poly” – means many


Writing cuneiform
Writing: civilizations in Mesopotamia.Cuneiform


Ancient mesopotamia sumerian writing
ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- SUMERIAN WRITING civilizations in Mesopotamia.

  • CALLED CUNEIFORM (LATIN FOR WEDGE)

  • WRITTEN ON CLAY TABLETS

  • NEEDED FOR RELIGION, GOVERNMENT, AND TRADE

  • LEARNED IN SCHOOL, BY MALES THAT LASTED FROM SUNRISE TO SUNSET


Sumerian writing cuneiform
Sumerian Writing: cuneiform civilizations in Mesopotamia.

Cuneiform is created by pressing a pointed stylus into a clay tablet.


Cuneiform
Cuneiform civilizations in Mesopotamia.


Economy
Economy civilizations in Mesopotamia.


Ancient mesopotamia sumerian economy
ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- SUMERIAN ECONOMY civilizations in Mesopotamia.

  • Make, sell or barter goods.

  • Trade helped expansion.

  • Development of money

    • Will evolve over time.


Ancient mesopotamia sumerian economy1

RICH civilizations in Mesopotamia.

government officials

religious leaders

traders

POOR

Farmers

craftsman

ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- SUMERIAN ECONOMY


Ancient mesopotamia sumerian pastimes
ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- SUMERIAN PASTIMES civilizations in Mesopotamia.

  • Entertainment

    • No longer had to hunt and gather.

    • More time for fun times.

  • Rich had more time than poor.

  • Activities:

    • BOARD GAMES

    • INSTRUMENTS

    • BARE FISTED BOXING

  • Activities geared toward young and used for socializing.


The invention of agriculture changed the way people lived
The invention of Agriculture changed the way people lived. civilizations in Mesopotamia.

  • Agriculture (Farming)

  • Growth of Cities

  • Division of Labor (Specialization)

  • Trade

  • Writing and Mathematics


Objectives

Persians civilizations in Mesopotamia.

Akkadians

Babylonians

Sumeria

Hittites

Mesopotamian

Civilization

Chaldeans

Lydians

Phoenicians

Assyrians


Hittites
Hittites civilizations in Mesopotamia.

  • Iron Weapons

  • Add to your map the location:

    • Hittites

    • Assyrians

    • Akkadians


Assyrians
Assyrians civilizations in Mesopotamia.

  • Chief god Assur

  • Chariots used

  • First Cavalry


Akkadians
Akkadians civilizations in Mesopotamia.

  • Spoke a Semitic Language related to modern Hebrew and Arabic

When heaven above was not yet named, nor earth below pronounced by name, Apsu, the first one, their begetter and maker Tiamat, who bore them all, had mixed their waters together, but had not formed pastures, nor discovered reed-beds. When yet no gods were manifest, nor names pronounced, nor destinies decreed, then gods were born within them.


Babylonians
Babylonians civilizations in Mesopotamia.

  • Chief god: Marduk

    • Prayed for good harvest and success in business.

  • King Hammurabi

  • Hammurabi’s Code

    • Earliest code of law

    • Based on equal retaliation.


Hammurabi s code
Hammurabi’s Code civilizations in Mesopotamia.

  • 282 laws.

  • Harsh punishment for crimes.

  • Based on equal retaliation.

    • “ If a man bring an accusation against a man and charge him with a capital crime, but cannot prove it, the accuser, shall be put to death”

    • “If the slave of a freed man strike the body of a freed man, his ear shall be cut off”

  • Laws were varied for the wealthy and powerful.


What do you think
What do you think? civilizations in Mesopotamia.

  • “ If a man bring an accusation against a man and charge him with a capital crime, but cannot prove it, the accuser, shall be put to death”

  • “If the slave of a freed man strike the body of a freed man, his ear shall be cut off”

  • If a man strike a free-born woman so that she lose her unborn child, he shall pay ten shekels for her loss.

    • “If the woman die, his daughter shall be put to death.


Chaldeans
Chaldeans civilizations in Mesopotamia.

  • Skilled astronomers

  • Hanging Gardens of Babylon

  • King Nebuchadnezzar built them for his wife

    • One of the Ancient Wonders of the World

http://www.crystalinks.com/seven.html


Persians
Persians civilizations in Mesopotamia.

  • Present day Iran

  • Spoke an Indo-European Language

  • Zoroastrianism

    • Belief in final judgment and training for it


Phoenicians
Phoenicians civilizations in Mesopotamia.

  • Major natural resource: lumber from cedar forests.

  • Invented the art of glassblowing.

  • Alphabet

    • Then adopted by Greeks.

    • Then adopted by Romans

  • Please label Phoenicia on your map.


Lydians
Lydians civilizations in Mesopotamia.

  • First to use a money economy.

    • An economic system based in the use of money as a measure of value and a unit of account.


Warm ups
Warm ups civilizations in Mesopotamia.

  • What were the basic units of Sumerian civilization?

  • Define patriarchal

  • Sumerian city-states contained what three major social groups?


Ch 2 section 1
Ch 2 Section 1 civilizations in Mesopotamia.

  • 1 cuneiform writing

  • 2 wagon wheel

  • 3 potters wheel

  • 4 sundial

  • 5 arch/dome

  • 6 they were the first to make bronze out of copper and tin


Objectives

7. Where was Mesopotamia located? civilizations in Mesopotamia.At the eastern end of the fertile Crescent between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.


8 which people had the most power in the sumerian city states

8. Which people had the most power in the Sumerian city-states?

The kings, priests and priestesses (nobles)


9 what two empires gained control of the sumerian city states

9. What two empires gained control of the Sumerian city states?

The Akkadians-ruled by Sargon and the Babylonians ruled by Hammurabi.


10 what principle was the basis for many of the laws in hammurabi s code

10. What principle was the basis for many of the laws in Hammurabi’s code?

Retribution-an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth


11 why did the people of mesopotamia believe that supernatural forces controlled their world

11. Why did the people of Mesopotamia believe that supernatural forces controlled their world?

Due to the harsh climate-floods were unpredictable, there were heavy rains, famines and scorching winds. The people knew that they could not control these things so they believed that supernatural forces ruled their worlds.


Ch 2 section 2 old kingdom
Ch 2 Section 2-Old Kingdom supernatural forces controlled their world?

  • 1 A bureaucracy developed to help the pharaohs rule, pyramids were built, mummification was used to preserve the dead and the Great Pyramid was built in 2540 B.C.


Middle kingdom
Middle Kingdom supernatural forces controlled their world?

  • 2 Egypt conquered Nubia and a canal was built to connect the Nile and the Red Sea. The Middle Kingdom ended when the Hyksos invaded Egypt in 1652 B.C.


New kingdom
New Kingdom supernatural forces controlled their world?

  • 3 Egypt became the most powerful state in southwest Asia, Hatshepsut became the first female pharaoh, Amenhotep IV forced the people to worship a single god.


4 how did the nile effect life in ancient egypt

4. How did the Nile effect life in ancient Egypt? supernatural forces controlled their world?

When the Nile flooded, it left behind fertile soil on both sides of the river enabling farmers to grow crops ; it also made travel easier while giving the people a sense of security.


5 which gods were the most important to the egyptians
5. Which gods were the most important to the Egyptians? supernatural forces controlled their world?

  • The sun gods-Atum and Re and the land gods- Osiris and Isis.


6 what is mummification and why did the egyptians use it
6. What is mummification, and why did the Egyptians use it? supernatural forces controlled their world?

  • Mummification is the process of slowly drying a dead body to prevent it from rotting. It was used to preserve the body after death.


7 how was egyptian society like a pyramid
7. How was Egyptian society like a pyramid? supernatural forces controlled their world?

  • The pharaoh was at the top, then there were nobles and priests, then scribes, merchants, artisans and at the bottom was the largest group-the peasants and farmers.


8 how were women treated in ancient egypt
8. How were women treated in ancient Egypt? supernatural forces controlled their world?

  • They were respected and the upper class women could become priestesses. Four queens would become pharaohs.


9 what is hieratic script
9. What is hieratic script? supernatural forces controlled their world?

  • A simplified version of hieroglyphics that was used for business and daily life.


10 what advances did the egyptians make in math and science
10. What advances did the Egyptians make in math and science?

  • They used geometry and learned how to calculate area and volume, they developed the 365 day calendar, they became experts at human anatomy, they also used splints and bandages to treat injuries.


Objectives1

The students will compare and contrast ancient civilizations.

The students will examine how the decline of the Hittites and the Egyptians allowed other city-states and kingdoms to emerge.

Complete Warm ups

Complete Comparison/Contrast Activity over Egypt and Sumeria

Read/Discuss Ch 2 Section 3

Complete Section 3 Study Guide

Objectives


Warm ups1
Warm ups civilizations.

  • Why were the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers important to Mesopotamian civilization?

  • How is monotheism different from polytheism?

  • How do a dynasty, a theocracy and a bureaucracy differ?

  • The first female pharaoh was whom?


Objectives2

The students will explain how the decline of the Egyptians allowed other city-states to emerge.

Complete Warm ups

Discuss Ch 2 Sections 3&4

Complete Section 3&4 Study Guide Questions

Complete “Rise of New Empires” Worksheet

Objectives


Warm ups2
Warm ups allowed other city-states to emerge.

  • List two characteristics of the Phoenicians.

  • Who is Yahweh?

  • What is another name for governor?

  • From what two cities did the Royal Road extend?


Chapter 2 section 3
Chapter 2 Section 3 allowed other city-states to emerge.

  • 1. They were the first Indo-Europeans to use iron.


Objectives



4 what are pastoral nomads

4. What are pastoral nomads? religion.

Nomads who domesticated animals for food and clothing. They moved along regular routes to find food for their animals.



6 how was the jewish religion different from other religions in western asia and egypt
6. How was the Jewish religion different from other religions in western Asia and Egypt?

  • The Jewish religion was monotheistic, and other religions were polytheistic. Also in the Jewish religion, God’s wishes were written down so no single person could claim that he or she knew god’s will.


Chapter 2 section 4

Chapter 2 Section 4 religions in western Asia and Egypt?

1. Assyrian Empire is established

.


Objectives

2. Zoroaster is born religions in western Asia and Egypt?


Objectives

3. The Assyrian Empire falls to the Chaldeans and Medes. religions in western Asia and Egypt?


Objectives

4. Cyrus begins his rule. religions in western Asia and Egypt?


Objectives

5. Babylon falls to the Persians. religions in western Asia and Egypt?


Objectives

6. Darius begins his rule. religions in western Asia and Egypt?


Objectives

7. The Persian Empire falls to Alexander the Great. religions in western Asia and Egypt?


8 how did the assyrians communicate throughout their empire
8. How did the Assyrians communicate throughout their empire?

  • They used relays of horses to carry messages along a network of posts.


9 why was cyrus called the great
9. Why was Cyrus called “the Great”? empire?

  • Due to the fact that he ruled with wisdom and compassion. He also created a powerful empire, but respected other cultures (for example he allowed the Jews to return to Jerusalem).


Objectives3
Objectives empire?

  • Hand in homework

  • Complete Warm up Quiz

  • Complete Book Check

  • Complete Ch 2 Test Essays-write 1 page for any 2 essays (worth 30 points each).

  • Complete Ch 2 Exam Review-Ch 2 Test next class period


Warm up quiz
Warm up Quiz empire?

  • What were the basic units

  • of Sumerian civilization?




4 what three things do all humans need to survive which is the most important
4. empire?What three things do all humans need to survive? Which is the most important?


5 in what continent did man first originate
5. empire?In what continent did man first originate?







Bonus questions
Bonus Questions empire?

  • 1. Who was the first female pharaoh?

  • 2. The Paleolithic Age is also known as what?