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HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY PowerPoint Presentation
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HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY

HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY

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HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY

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  1. HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY CHAPTER 2-BASIC CHEMISTRY

  2. Concepts of Matter & Energy • Matter=”stuff” of the universe existing as ____________________states on earth/solid has definite volume and shape;liquid only definite volume and gas-has neither • Physical change-does not alter basic nature whereas chemical alters _________________________. • ENERGYonly measured by effects on matter-_______________ • ______energy of motion and potential is __________. kinetic Solid liquid and gas composition Ability to do work Stored energy

  3. Energy forms: • ______________-stored in chemical bonds-involved in cellular respration • _____________-comes from movement of charged particles-used in nerve impulses • __________-Directly involved in moving matter-eg.movement of limbs • _______-travels in waves;electromagnetic spectrum-x-rays,infrared,visible light,radio,UV,gamma Chemical energy electrical Mechanical energy radiant

  4. Energy is usually converted from one form to another-some of initial energy is lost to environment

  5. II.Composition of Matter • 112 _____________-alike in atoms and unique atomic #/represented on periodic table,organized by atomic # and short hand representation is _________________-Look at Chart p.30 • Atoms made of positive protons and neutral ____________in nucleus,surrounded by _______electrons,in energy levels neutrons elements symbol (-)

  6. Atomic # = # protons • Atomic mass #= # p+n • Atomic mass –average of all isotope masses for an element

  7. ______________________________are atoms that differ in number of neutrons,are identified my mass number,and one medical use is as tracers in medical diagnosis.---see.pp. 8 and 9 • __________________________________occur whenever atoms combine with or dissociate from other atoms • _____________________-2 or more combined chemically;more specifically a compound radioisotopes Chemical reactions molecule

  8. 2 bond we see in living things are __________________,w/a transfer of electrons and ___________________________w/a sharing of electrons • Outer -_____________________electrons determine bonding capacity and thus properties • _______-charged atom ionic covalent valence ion

  9. Polar molecules have unequal sharing of electrons ,as seen in water • Water bonds to other water atoms by H- bonds-a weak bond • These combined H-bonds create a high surface tension

  10. 3 reaction types • synthesis ----2H2 + O2 2H2O • __________------H2O 2H2 +O2 • Exchange---2HCl + Zn ZnCl2 +H2 OR HCl + NaOH HOH +NaCl decomposition

  11. III.Biochemistry:Chemical Composition of Living Matter • __________________ contain carbon ,but not all are involved in living things(inorganic lack C-CO,CO2 and cyanide 3 exemptions Organic compounds

  12. INORGANICS--_WATER • high heat capacity(ie before a temperature absorbs and releases a lot of heat change thus preventing us from sudden body temperature changes. • ___________________________-“universal solvents” • Solute dissolves in a _________________ to make a solution-Thus water able to transport many materials • 3. chemical reactivity • __________________________reaction---water added to the bond. • 4.____________________________-protective as in CSF or amniotic fluid solvent hydrolysis Polarity/solvent properties cushioning

  13. INORGANIC COMPOUNDS- SALTS • Salt contains cation besides H+ and an anion besides OH-…examples:NaCl,KCl,CaI2 • Easily separate into ions_____________________________________ • Because ions are charged particles,all salts are ______________________________-able to conduct a current electrolytes dissociation

  14. ______________-pH<7 and proton donor • ______________-pH> 7 and proton acceptor • pH measures H+ concentration • Acid +Base=Salt + water –all neutral base acid

  15. buffers • _____________prevents sharp pH change

  16. FOUR CLASSES of MACROMOLECULES in living things: • 1)Carbohydrates-FIRST SOURCE FOR ENERGY!!!!!inc. sugars,starches/have C,H and O in a 1:2:1 ratio • Example: C6H12O6= GLUCOSE • Sugars inc. monosaccharides(Glucose and fructose,,disaccharides(Sucrose,lactose,maltose) and polysaccharides(starch and glycogen)….Examples of starches______________________________ Pasta,rice,bread,carrots

  17. Lipids-made of C,H and O---look at lipid table p.47 • ---made up of often fatty acids and glycerol • ___________________________________-are solid fats with all C-C bonds filled-no double or triple bonds….___________________________________-are liquids and they have at least 1 C-C double bond Saturated fats unsaturated

  18. Neutral fats_triglycerides-in fat deposits-in subcutaneous tissue and around organs-protect,insulate and major energy source • Trans fats----oils solidifies by adding H atoms----considered bad for the cardiovascular system • Omega -3 fatty acids(in cold water fish)-help your heart and immune system • Phospholipids found in cell membrane

  19. ______________________fat soluble-inc. cholesterol and hormones-cholesterol basis of all body steroids • ________________________a breakdown product of cholesterol;released by liver into digestive tract-aid in fat digestion and absorption • ____________________-cortisol;aldersterone • Includes vitamins A(for vision)E(wound healing,fertility,antioxidant),K(for clotting,Prostaglandins-from fatty acid-membranes(used in bor,blood pressuremovement in digestive tract and in inflammation),lipoproteins(transport fatty acids and cholesterol in bloodstream-HDL and LDL) steroids Bile salts corticosteroids

  20. PROTEINS- • made up of monomer of amino acids;>50% organic matter,contain C,H,O,and N,~ 20 amino acids,polypeptide is another word for protein and peptide bonds join amino acids • Fibrous(0r structural) Proteins are in most body structures;provide strength-eg.collagen in bones,cartilage and tendons…..also KERATIN—protein of hair and nails • Globular proteins-mobile and mostly spherical and DO things---FUNCTIONAL PROTEINS----examples:enzymes-regulate reactions---H-bonds and van der waals force help them-like hemoglogin,keep their shape

  21. Draw an enzyme –substrate complex and label active site • Enzymes usually end in –ase(sugars in –ose)

  22. NUCLEIC ACIDS-made of C,H,O,N and P *DNA provides heredity and RNA takes DNA’s info to make proteins/the monomer is a nucleotide consisting of sugar,nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.Label the nucleotide for DNA,then RNA:

  23. ATP is the energy storage molecule-This is what carbs are broken down into so we can get usable energy---ATP and ADP continually recycle