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ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY 241 PowerPoint Presentation
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ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY 241

ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY 241

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ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY 241

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  1. ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY 241 Study of the Human Body

  2. ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY • ANATOMY • structure • how form & structure relate to each other • PHYSIOLOGY • how anatomy functions • Structure determines Function • complementarity of structure & function

  3. WAYS TO STUDY ANATOMY • Microscopic • Cytology • Study of cells • Histology • Study of tissues • Gross • Surface • Regional • Systemic • Developmental

  4. Levels of Organization

  5. LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION • Chemical or Molecular Atomsmolecules • Cellular basic unit of structure and function in living things makes up organelles • Tissue Level cells of similar structure & function working together to perform a specific activity4 basic types: connective, epithelial, muscle and nerve

  6. LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION • Organ Level tissues working together to perform a specific activity Examples - heart, brain, skin, etc. • Organ Systems Levelgroups of two or more tissues working together to perform a specific function11 organ systems - circulatory, digestive, endocrine, urinary, immune(lymphatic), integumentary, muscular, nervous, reproductive, respiratory & skeletal • Organism Levelentire living things that can carry out all basic life processes-usually made up of organ systems • An organism may be made of one cell

  7. Basic Life Processes • Organisms share 6 basic life processes • 1. Metabolism • 2. Responsiveness • 3. Movement • 4. Differentiation • 5. Growth • 6. Reproduction

  8. Metabolism • sum of all chemical processes that take place in the body • Catabolism • larger macromolecules are broken down into smaller subunits or monomers • Anabolism • larger macromolecules are formed from smaller submits.

  9. Responsiveness • ability to detect & respond to changes

  10. Movement

  11. Differentiation • ability of cells to develop from an unspecialized cell into a specialized cell

  12. Growth • a way to increase in size

  13. Reproduction • making a whole new organism • Cells able to divide and make new cells for • Growth • replacement

  14. Homeostasis • organ systems are interdependent • share same environment • composition effects all inhabitants • internal environment must be kept stable • maintaining stable internal environments-homeostasis • dynamic equilibrium

  15. Homeostasis • varies around a Set Point • average value for a variable • specific for each individual • determined by genetics • normal ranges for a species • temperature 36.7 – 37.2

  16. HOMEOSTATIC REGULATION • Autoregulation • cells, tissues, organs adjust automatically to environmental changes • Extrinsic Regulation • Nervous System • Fast • Short lasting • Crisis management • Endocrine System • Longer to react • Longer lasting

  17. Parts of Homeostatic Regulation • Receptor • sensitive to environmental change or stimuli • Control or Integration Center • receives & processes information supplied by receptor • determines set point • Effector • cell or organ which responds to commands of control center

  18. HOMEOSTASIS

  19. FEEDBACK LOOPS • Negative Feedback • output of system shuts off or reduces intensity of initiating stimulus • most often seen in the body • Positive Feedback • initial stimulus produces a response that exaggerates or enhances its effect • blood clotting & child birth

  20. Negative Feedback

  21. Negative Feedback Loop