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Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology. Text: Elaine N. Marieb 6 th Edition. Objectives . Define & relate Anatomy and Physiology List and relate the levels of structural organization that makes up the human body. Briefly list the functions for the organ systems

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essentials of human anatomy physiology

Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology


Elaine N. Marieb

6th Edition

  • Define & relate Anatomy and Physiology
  • List and relate the levels of structural organization that makes up the human body.
  • Briefly list the functions for the organ systems
  • Classify by organ systems all organs discussed
  • Identify the organs shown on the torso diagram.
objectives continued
Objectives continued.
  • List the functions that humans must perform to maintain life.
  • List the survival needs of the human body
  • Define homeostasis and explain its importance.
  • Describe the anatomical positions
  • Describe body directions, surfaces, and planes.
  • Locate major body cavities and list the chif organs in each cavity.
anatomy and physiology
Anatomy and Physiology
  • Anatomy: The study of the structure and shape of the body.
  • Physiology: the study of how the body and its parts work or function
  • Structure determines what functions can take place.
levels of structural organization
Levels of Structural Organization
  • Atoms
  • Cells
  • Tissues
  • Organs
  • Organs Systems
  • Organism
  • Superior (above)-inferior (below)
  • Lateral (outside)-Medial (middle)
  • Proximal (closest to midline)-Distal (distant from midline)
  • Superficial (surface)- Deep
  • Anterior (front)-Posterior (back)
  • Coronal (head)
  • Sagittal- down middle so you have equal left and left
  • Frontal/Coronal- cut down side so you have a front and back
  • Transverse- Top and bottom, perpendicular to long axis.
characteristics of life
Characteristics of Life
  • Cellular organization
  • Adaptations that result from evolution
  • Respond to maintain homeostasis
  • Energy is used to fuel metabolism
  • Ecological value to an ecosystem
  • Reproduction (passes on heredity)
maintaining life
Maintaining Life
  • We must move.
  • We must respond to changes
  • We must digest food
  • We must metabolize (break down substances and use nutrients, oxygen, and produce ATP).
  • We must excrete
  • We must find a way to reproduce
  • We must find a way to grow
  • Homeostasis: A dynamic state of equilibrium. A balance in which internal conditions change and vary, but always within relatively narrow limits.
  • Negative feedback mechanisms
    • Ex: If you are hot, you sweat. If you are cold, you shiver.
  • Positive Feedback mechanisms
    • Ex: Blood clotting and child birth
survival needs
Survival Needs
  • Nutrients
  • Oxygen
  • Water
  • Body Temperature (37 degrees Celsius)
  • Atmospheric Pressure
organ systems
Organ Systems
  • Integumentary System: SKIN
    • Waterproofs, cushions, protects, regulates temp.
  • Skeletal System: BONES
    • Bones, cartilage, ligaments, & joints provides framework and protection.
  • Muscular System: MUSCLES
    • Contract to provide mobility
organ systems continued
Organ systems continued…
  • Nervous system: NERVES.
    • Brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory receptors that respond to irritants or stimuli and send messages.
  • Endocrine system: HORMONES
    • Pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenals, thymus, pancreas, pineal, ovaries, testes… release hormones to control actives, such as growth, reproduction, and food in the body.
organ systems continued14
Organ systems continued…
  • Cardiovascular system: <3
    • The heart and blood vessels use blood to transport oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and other substances to and from tissues.
  • Lymphatic system: Lymph Nodes
    • Lymph vessels and nodes (spleens and tonsils), return leaked blood, clean blood and house the cells involved in immunity.
  • Respiratory system: Just Breath
    • Remove the CO2 and give O2
organ systems continued15
Organ systems continued…
  • Digestive System: Feed Me!
    • Breaks down food and delivers products to cells.
  • Urinary System: I gotta go =)
    • The removing nitrogen-containing wastes from the blood and flushing them from the body in urine. (kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra)
    • Also maintains water and salt balance (acid/base)
  • Reproductive System: Life must go on!!!
    • The purpose of this system is to reproduce.
integumentary system
Integumentary System
  • External covering of the body
    • skin
muscular system
Muscular system
  • Allows manipulation of the environment. Maintains posture and produces heat.
    • Skeletal Muscles
nervous system
Nervous System:
  • Fast- acting control system of body, responds to external and internal changes by activating appropriate muscles.
    • Brain, Sensory Receptor, Spinal Cord, Nerves
endocrine system
Endocrine System
  • Glands that secrete hormones control body activities.
    • Pineal, Pituitary, Thyroid, Thymus, Adrenal, Pancreas, Testis (male), Ovary (female).
cardiovascular system
Cardiovascular System
  • Blood vessels that transport blood which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes etc.. Heart pumps blood.
    • Heart and Blood Vessels
lymphatic system
Lymphatic System
  • Picks up fluid that has leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood. Houses WBC’s.
    • Thoracic Duct, Lymph Nodes, Lymphatic Vessels
respiratory system
Respiratory System
  • Keeps blood constantly supplied with Oxygen and removes Carbon Dioxide.
    • Nasal Cavity, Pharynx, Larynx, Trachea, Bronchus, Left Lung
urinary system
Urinary System
  • Eliminates Nitrogenous wastes from the body. Regulates water, electrolyte and acid-base balance of blood.
    • Kidney, Ureter, Urinary Bladder, Urethra
reproductive systems
Reproductive Systems
  • Produce offspring. Testes produce sperm and male sex hormone, Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones.
    • Male (Seminal vesicles, Prostate Gland, Penis, Vas Deferens, Testis, Scrotum)
    • Female (Mammary glands, Uterine tube, Ovary, Uterus, Vagina)