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6/2007 PowerPoint Presentation

6/2007

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6/2007

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  1. Human Anatomy & Physiology 6/2007

  2. When you’re working keep saying to yourself -- I CAN DO IT I WILL DO IT!

  3. Central Theme • Anatomy and Physiology • Form and Function

  4. Introduction What is Anatomy ? What is Physiology? Gross Anatomy Microscopic Anatomy-Histology Ultramicroscopic Anatomy Systemic Anatomy Cross-sectional Anatomy Regional Anatomy Embryology Pathology General Physiology Systemic Physiology Cellular Physiology

  5. Scientific Method • Ask a question • Collection information • Form a hypothesis • Design an experiment to collect data that will support of reject the hypothesis • Control • Variable • Collect date • Analysis of data • Draw conclusions • Repeat experiments • Share with scientific community, publish

  6. Experimental Design • Sample size • Controls • Psychosomatic effects • Experimental bias • Statistical testing

  7. What is Life? • Organization • Cellular composition • Biochemical unity • Metabolism • Responsiveness • Homeostasis • Development • Growth • Reproduction • Evolution

  8. Cell Theory • Schleiden - botanist • Schwann- zoologist • Virchow- biologist • CELL THEORY • All living things are composed of cells • Cells come from pre-existing cells by cell reproduction

  9. Early Compound Microscopes The first cells seen were plant cell walls in a section of dried cork.

  10. Human Structure- A Hierarchy of Complexity Least inclusive to most: • Subatomic particles • Atom • Organelles • Cells • Tissues • Organs • Organ systems • Organism

  11. Hierarchy of complexity • organism is composed of organ systems • organ systems composed of organs • organs composed of tissues • tissues composed of cells

  12. Hierarchy of Complexity 2 • Cells contain organelles • Organelles composed of molecules • Molecules composed of atoms

  13. Anatomical Variation • No 2 humans are exactly alike • variable number of organs • variation in organ locations (situs inversus, dextrocardia, situs perversus)

  14. Atlas A: General Orientation to Human Anatomy • Anatomical position • Anatomical planes • Surface anatomy • Body cavities and membranes • Organ systems

  15. Early Medical Illustrations

  16. Anatomical Position Definition • Standing erect • legs parallel • feet with toes pointing forward • Arms at side with palms supine

  17. Directional Terms Anterior - Posterior Dorsal - Ventral Cranial - Caudad Proximal - Distal Superficial - Deep Medial - Lateral Cortical - Medullary Central - Peripheral

  18. Body Cavities Dorsal Cavity Cranial Cavity Spinal Cavity Ventral Cavity - Thoracic cavity Pleural cavity Pericardial cavity Mediastinum Abdominopelvic Cavity Abdominal cavity Pelvic cavity

  19. Directional Planes • Midsagittal Plane • Parasagittal Plane • Frontal Plane • Horizontal Plane - Cross section • Coronal Plane

  20. Cross sectional view Cross sectional view

  21. Cross sectional view

  22. Sagittal & Coronal views

  23. Homeostasis • Body attempts to maintain a steady state

  24. Positive Feedback Loops • Self-amplifying change • leads to change in the same direction • Normal way of producing rapid changes • occurs with childbirth, blood clotting, protein digestion, and generation of nerve signals

  25. Structure of Feedback Loop • Receptor = senses change • Integrator = control center that responds • Effector = structures that restore homeostasis

  26. Human Thermoregulation • Brain senses change in blood temperature • if overheating, vessels dilate in the skin and sweating begins • if too cold, vasoconstriction in the skin and shivering begins

  27. Control of Blood Pressure • Circulatory stretch receptors • detect a rise in BP • Cardiac center in brainstem • sends out nerve signals • Heart slowed and BP lowered

  28. Negative Feedback, Set Point • Room temperature does not stay at set point of 68 degrees -- it only averages 68 degrees

  29. Negative Feedback Loop • Body senses a change and activates mechanisms to reverse it

  30. Useful Tables in Textbook

  31. Medical Imaging • Radiography (x rays) • William Roentgen - 1885 • penetrate soft tissues and darken photographic film • dense tissue remains white • Radiopaque substances • injected or swallowed • hollow structures • blood vessels • intestinal tract

  32. Medical Imaging • Computed Tomography (CT scan) • low-intensity X rays and computer analysis • slice type image • increased sharpness • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) • slice type image • best for soft tissue • Mechanics • magnetic field aligns atoms • radio waves realign the atoms • radio turned off • atoms realign to the magnetic field • energy given off depending on tissue type

  33. Medical Imaging • Positron Emission Tomography (PET scan) • assesses metabolic state • mechanics • inject labeled glucose • positrons and electrons collide • gamma rays given off • analyzed by computer • image glucose usage

  34. Medical Imaging • Sonography • mechanics • high-frequency sound waves echo back from internal organs • avoids harmful x rays • obstetrics • 2nd most commonly used technique

  35. Anatomical Terminology • Medical terms from Greek and Latin roots • Naming confusion during the Renaissance • same structures with different names • structures named after people (eponyms) • Search for uniform international terminology • 1895 Nomina Anatomica (NA) rejected all eponyms • each structure = unique Latin name • Terminologia Anatomica was codified in 1998

  36. Analyzing Medical Terms • Terminology based on word elements • lexicon (Appendix C) • Scientific terms • one root (stem) with core meaning • combining vowels join roots • prefix modifies core meaning • suffix modifies core meaning • Acronyms • first few letters of series of words

  37. Review of Major Themes • Cell theory • activity of cells determine structure and function • Homeostasis • maintaining stable internal conditions • Evolution • our body evolved by natural selection • Hierarchy of structure • levels of complexity • Unity of form and function • physiology is inseparable from anatomy

  38. Now, Let’s get started!!! • Study every minute • Practice, practice, practice!! • Be on time • Get your money’s worth • Become an anatomist

  39. The End