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Human Anatomy & Physiology. 6/2007. When you’re working keep saying to yourself --. I CAN DO IT I WILL DO IT!. Central Theme. Anatomy and Physiology Form and Function. Introduction. What is Anatomy ? What is Physiology?. Gross Anatomy Microscopic Anatomy-Histology

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slide1

Human Anatomy

&

Physiology

6/2007

slide3

Central Theme

  • Anatomy and Physiology
  • Form and Function
slide4

Introduction

What is Anatomy ? What is Physiology?

Gross Anatomy

Microscopic Anatomy-Histology

Ultramicroscopic Anatomy

Systemic Anatomy

Cross-sectional Anatomy

Regional Anatomy

Embryology

Pathology

General Physiology

Systemic Physiology

Cellular Physiology

scientific method
Scientific Method
  • Ask a question
  • Collection information
  • Form a hypothesis
  • Design an experiment to collect data that will support of reject the hypothesis
    • Control
    • Variable
  • Collect date
  • Analysis of data
  • Draw conclusions
  • Repeat experiments
  • Share with scientific community, publish
experimental design
Experimental Design
  • Sample size
  • Controls
  • Psychosomatic effects
  • Experimental bias
  • Statistical testing
what is life
What is Life?
  • Organization
  • Cellular composition
  • Biochemical unity
  • Metabolism
  • Responsiveness
  • Homeostasis
  • Development
  • Growth
  • Reproduction
  • Evolution
cell theory
Cell Theory
  • Schleiden - botanist
  • Schwann- zoologist
  • Virchow- biologist
  • CELL THEORY
    • All living things are composed of cells
    • Cells come from pre-existing cells by cell reproduction
early compound microscopes
Early Compound Microscopes

The first cells seen were plant cell walls in a section of dried cork.

human structure a hierarchy of complexity
Human Structure- A Hierarchy of Complexity

Least inclusive to most:

  • Subatomic particles
  • Atom
  • Organelles
  • Cells
  • Tissues
  • Organs
  • Organ systems
  • Organism
hierarchy of complexity
Hierarchy of complexity
  • organism is composed of organ systems
  • organ systems composed of organs
  • organs composed of tissues
  • tissues composed of cells
hierarchy of complexity 2
Hierarchy of Complexity 2
  • Cells contain organelles
  • Organelles composed of molecules
  • Molecules composed of atoms
anatomical variation
Anatomical Variation
  • No 2 humans are exactly alike
    • variable number of organs
    • variation in organ locations (situs inversus, dextrocardia, situs perversus)
atlas a general orientation to human anatomy
Atlas A: General Orientation to Human Anatomy
  • Anatomical position
  • Anatomical planes
  • Surface anatomy
  • Body cavities and membranes
  • Organ systems
slide16

Anatomical Position

Definition

  • Standing erect
  • legs parallel
  • feet with toes pointing forward
  • Arms at side with palms supine
slide17

Directional Terms

Anterior - Posterior

Dorsal - Ventral

Cranial - Caudad

Proximal - Distal

Superficial - Deep

Medial - Lateral

Cortical - Medullary

Central - Peripheral

slide18

Body Cavities

Dorsal Cavity

Cranial Cavity

Spinal Cavity

Ventral Cavity - Thoracic cavity Pleural cavity

Pericardial cavity

Mediastinum Abdominopelvic Cavity Abdominal cavity Pelvic cavity

slide19

Directional Planes

  • Midsagittal Plane
  • Parasagittal Plane
  • Frontal Plane
  • Horizontal Plane - Cross section
  • Coronal Plane
cross sectional view
Cross sectional view

Cross sectional view

homeostasis
Homeostasis
  • Body attempts to maintain a steady state
positive feedback loops
Positive Feedback Loops
  • Self-amplifying change
    • leads to change in the same direction
  • Normal way of producing rapid changes
    • occurs with childbirth, blood clotting, protein digestion, and generation of nerve signals
structure of feedback loop
Structure of Feedback Loop
  • Receptor = senses change
  • Integrator = control center that responds
  • Effector = structures that restore homeostasis
human thermoregulation
Human Thermoregulation
  • Brain senses change in blood temperature
    • if overheating, vessels dilate in the skin and sweating begins
    • if too cold, vasoconstriction in the skin and shivering begins
control of blood pressure
Control of Blood Pressure
  • Circulatory stretch receptors
    • detect a rise in BP
  • Cardiac center in brainstem
    • sends out nerve signals
  • Heart slowed and BP lowered
negative feedback set point
Negative Feedback, Set Point
  • Room temperature does not stay at set point of 68 degrees -- it only averages 68 degrees
negative feedback loop
Negative Feedback Loop
  • Body senses a change and activates mechanisms to reverse it
medical imaging
Medical Imaging
  • Radiography (x rays)
    • William Roentgen - 1885
    • penetrate soft tissues and darken photographic film
    • dense tissue remains white
  • Radiopaque substances
    • injected or swallowed
    • hollow structures
        • blood vessels
        • intestinal tract
medical imaging1
Medical Imaging
  • Computed Tomography (CT scan)
    • low-intensity X rays and computer analysis
      • slice type image
      • increased sharpness
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    • slice type image
    • best for soft tissue
    • Mechanics
      • magnetic field aligns atoms
      • radio waves realign the atoms
      • radio turned off
      • atoms realign to the magnetic field
      • energy given off depending on tissue type
medical imaging2
Medical Imaging
  • Positron Emission Tomography (PET scan)
    • assesses metabolic state
    • mechanics
      • inject labeled glucose
        • positrons and electrons collide
        • gamma rays given off
      • analyzed by computer
        • image glucose usage
medical imaging3
Medical Imaging
  • Sonography
    • mechanics
      • high-frequency sound waves echo back from internal organs
    • avoids harmful x rays
    • obstetrics
    • 2nd most commonly used technique
anatomical terminology
Anatomical Terminology
  • Medical terms from Greek and Latin roots
  • Naming confusion during the Renaissance
    • same structures with different names
    • structures named after people (eponyms)
  • Search for uniform international terminology
    • 1895 Nomina Anatomica (NA) rejected all eponyms
      • each structure = unique Latin name
    • Terminologia Anatomica was codified in 1998
analyzing medical terms
Analyzing Medical Terms
  • Terminology based on word elements
    • lexicon (Appendix C)
  • Scientific terms
    • one root (stem) with core meaning
    • combining vowels join roots
    • prefix modifies core meaning
    • suffix modifies core meaning
    • Acronyms
      • first few letters of series of words
review of major themes
Review of Major Themes
  • Cell theory
    • activity of cells determine structure and function
  • Homeostasis
    • maintaining stable internal conditions
  • Evolution
    • our body evolved by natural selection
  • Hierarchy of structure
    • levels of complexity
  • Unity of form and function
    • physiology is inseparable from anatomy
now let s get started
Now, Let’s get started!!!
  • Study every minute
  • Practice, practice, practice!!
  • Be on time
  • Get your money’s worth
  • Become an anatomist
slide39

The

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