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PENGENALAN GEOLOGI PETROLEUM (E0005). PENGENALAN. Kandungan Kursus :

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slide1
PENGENALAN

GEOLOGI PETROLEUM

(E0005)

pengenalan
PENGENALAN
  • KandunganKursus:

1. Pengenalankepadageologi petroleum; sejaraheksplorasi, sifatkimiadanfizik, kaedaheksplorasi, akumulasi, asalmuladanperpindahan, perangkapdan reservoir petroleum (termasukkonseprezabdansumber).

pengenalan1
PENGENALAN

2. Rujukan:

  • Selly, R.C. Elements of Petroleum Geology
pengenalan2
PENGENALAN
  • Apakah ‘petroleum’?:
  • Berasaldrpperkataan Greek bermaksud ‘rock oil’ atauminyakbatuan.
  • Bolehdidefinasisebagaibahanterbentuksecarasemulajadi, nonrenewable fossil fuel, terutamanyaterdiridaripadacampuranhidrokarbondalambentukfasa gas, cecairdanpepejal.
pengenalan sejarah ringkas
PENGENALAN: Sejarah Ringkas
  • Ringkasan Sejarah Eksplorasi Petroleum:
  • Herodotus 450 BC – tirisan (seeps) asli
  • Kegunaan awal:
    • perubatan, waterproofing, warfare
    • Nabi Noh guna pitch untuk gegala kapal
  • Sehingga pertengahan kurun 19: semua minyak dikeluarkan dari tirisan, lubang cetek dan perigi digali dengan tangan
  • James Young: cerakin minyak dari carboniferous shales, Scotland 1847: “oil-shales”
pengenalan sejarah ringkas1
PENGENALAN: Sejarah Ringkas
  • Perigi pertama utk cari minyak = Pechelbronn, Peranchis, 1745
  • Perigi pertama mengeluar minyak: Oil creek, Pennsylvania oleh “Colonel” Drake pd tahun 1859.
  • Pemangkin utama pengeluaran minyak bermula apabila diperkenal internal combustion engine dlm tahun 1870 dan 1880.
  • Peningkatan penggunaan bertambah WWI (1914-18)
pengenalan sejarah ringkas2
PENGENALAN: Sejarah Ringkas
  • Tahun 1920 industri minyak di dominasi oleh “seven sisters”
  • Selepas WWII, syarikat minyak mula mencari keuntungan dgn eksplorasi dari satu kawasan pengeluaran ke kawasan lain.
  • 1960: Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) ditubuh di Baghdad (Iraq)
    • Objective: control the power of the independent oil companies by price control & appropriation of company assets
sifat fizik kimia minyak dan gas

Gas

Solid;

Asphalts, Coals, Kerogen

Cecair;

Oil, Crude

Wet

ethane, propane

Dry

methane

Sifat Fizik & Kimia Minyak dan gas

Hidrokarbon: terdiri drp H dan C

gas asli cecair ngl

ORGANIC ORIGIN

INORGANIC ORIGIN

Hydrocarbon Gases

Methane (dry)

Ethane (wet)

Propane

Butane

Inert Gases

Helium

Argon

Krypton

Radon

Nitrogen

Also

Carbon dioxide

Hydrogen sulphide

Gas Asli Cecair (NGL)

Dikelaskan kpd:

sifat kimia petroleum
Sifat Kimia Petroleum
  • Komponen utama hidrokarbon dibahagi kepada 2 siri:
    • Siri Parafin atau n-alkana (hc tepu)
    • Siri Naftena
    • 1. Siri Parafin
    • Hc berantai lurus yg memp. formula CnH2n+2
    • CH4 metana…C2H6 etana
    • Cecair pertama adalah n-pentana (C5H12)
    • Pepejal pertama adalah n-heksadekana C16H34
naftena atau sikloparafin
Naftena atau Sikloparafin
  • 2. Siri Naftena
  • Formula umum CnH2n
  • Terdiri drp hc gegelang atau sikloparafin.
  • C3H6 siklopropana and C4H8 siklobutana = gas
  • Cecair pertama adalah siklopentana C5H10
aromatik
Aromatik
  • 3. Aromatik; sebatiangegelangtaktepu
  • Berdasarkpdrantaigegelangbenzena CnH2n-6
so what s the best oil
So What’s the Best Oil?
  • Parrafin-based crudes – historically and still the best prized
    • Relatively rare in world terms
  • Asphalt based crudes
    • Dominant naphthenic components
    • ~15% world crudes including nearly all Middle East
slide16

Komponen Lain

A Typical GC Trace

sifat fizik petroleum

141.5

- 131.5

°API =

SG 60/60°F

Sifat Fizik Petroleum
  • Warna: kuning, hijau, coklathinggacoklatgelap & hitam
  • Kelikatan: Pelbagai, dipermukaanbumiminyakmenjadilebihlikat.
  • Ketumpatan: Kebanyakanminyaklebihringandrp air. Biasanyadiukursebagaiperbezaanantaraketumpatanbandingannya (SG) denganketumpatanbandingan air:
    • Minyakringanmempunyai API > 40° danminyakberatmemp. API graviti < 10° (SG=1)
how do we extract oil
How do we extract oil?
  • Onshore drilling rigs
  • Semi-submersible rigs
  • Jack-up units
  • Conventional drilling
  • Directional Drilling
  • Slant Drilling
types of drilling rotary drilling
Types of Drilling: Rotary Drilling
  • Drill bit berputar pd hujung drill string
penilaian formasi
PENILAIAN FORMASI
  • Selepas digerudi, untuk mendapat informasi tentang formasi maka dilakukan pengukuran sifat geofizik dgn mengguna wireline logs.
  • Parameter batuan boleh direkod, spt formation resistivity, sonic velocity, density, dan radioactivity.
  • Data direkod boleh diinterpretasi untuk menentu litologi dan porosity formasi, dan jenis dan kuantiti bendalir (minyak, gas, atau air) dalam liang batuan.
pembentukan akumulasi petroleum
Pembentukan Akumulasi Petroleum
  • Timbusansumberbahanorganik yang mencukupi.
    • Petroleum terbentukdaripadaorganisma.
  • Timbusanpadakedalamansesuai.
    • Kedalaman 2-6 km dansuhu 60-160º C.
  • Kehadiranbatuan reservoir berkualiti.

A porous storage space. Sandstone and limestones are the most common reservoir rocks. To be a reservoir they must have:

      • Porosity, to hold the hydrocarbons
      • Permeability, to allow fluid flow
pembentukan akumulasi petroleum1
Pembentukan Akumulasi Petroleum

4. Presence of an adequate seal

  • A seal is an impermeable bed (such as a shale or a bed of salt) that sits on top of the trap and prevents the hydrocarbons rising any further.

5. Presence of a trap

  • In order to prevent the hydrocarbons rising to the surface and escaping they must be caught in a confined space, termed a trap. i.e. the source, reservoir and seal must be arranged in such a way that the petroleum is trapped.
asalan petroleum
Asalan Petroleum
  • Teoribukanorganik
    • Sumber Cosmic: hcdidapatidalammeteorit
      • Consolidation of H and C during earth cooling.
    • Tindakbalaslogamkarbidadalambumi:
      • DiperkenalolehMendele’ve (1902) danPorfir’ev (1974) – karbidabesibertindakdengan air untukmembentukmetanadanminyakhidrokarbon.
      • There is little evidence for the existence of iron carbide in the mantle.
asalan petroleum1
Asalan Petroleum
  • TeoriOrganik
  • Terbentukdrppengubahanbahanbiologi.
  • Asalan petroleum drbiogenikditerimasecarameluasberdasarkajiangeokimia.
  • Pengendapansedimen yang kayabahanorganikdisokongdengankadarpengeluaranbahanorganik yang tinggidanpengawetan yang baik.
  • Terdapatduakeadaanuntukbahanorganikdiawetdenganbaik: dalamkeadaananaerobic dankadarpengedapansedimen yang cepat.
asalan petroleum3
Asalan Petroleum
  • Contoh keadaan anaerobik (sekitaran anoxia).
bagaimana bahan organik menjadi minyak
Bagaimana Bahan Organik Menjadi Minyak?
  • Terdapat 2 peringkat:
  • 1. Pengubahanbahanorganik (OM) kekerogen.
  • 2. PengubahanKerogenkeminyakdan gas
pengubahan om ke kerogen
Pengubahan OM ke Kerogen
  • Apabilabahanorganikditimbus, iaberubahdrpkomponenbiologikpd polymeric organic compounds danseterusnyakekerogen.
  • What is kerogen?
    • Insoluble in organic solvents
    • Complex mixture of high molecular weight organic materials
  • Kerogen is composed of varying proportions of C, H, and O. General composition may be described as:
  • (C12H12ON0.16)x
pengubahan kerogen ke minyak dan gas
Pengubahan Kerogen ke minyak dan gas

KEROGEN

  • Shallow subsurface
  • Normal pressure and temperature
  • Released: CH4, CO2, H2O
  • Overall decrease in O
  • Overall increase in H and C

Diagenesis

  • Deeper subsurface
  • Increased pressure and temperature
  • Released: oil & gas
  • Overall decrease in H and C

Catagenesis

Metamorphism

High temperature and pressure

Only C remains: becomes graphite

Metagenesis

konsep oil window
Konsep ‘Oil Window’
  • The principal zone of oil formation during the thermal generation of petroleum hydrocarbons
slide41

Maturation: no petroleum if the source rock OM does not mature

  • Migration: no accumulation if the petroleum doesn’t migrate
batuan punca dan perpindahan petroleum
Batuan Punca dan Perpindahan Petroleum
  • Kematangan (Maturation): no petroleum if the source rock OM does not mature
  • Perpindahan (Migration): no accumulation if the petroleum doesn’t migrate
the source rock
The Source Rock
  • This shale typically contains >1% of organic carbon, by weight. The shale is very widespread, and is by far the most important source rock for the oil that has been found in the Sea Basin.
perpindahan petroleum
Perpindahan Petroleum
  • Oil (& gas) berpindah dari batu punca, menerusi lapisan penyalur dan berkumpul dalam batuan reservoir.
  • Primary migration
    • From source rock to “carrier bed”
  • Secondary migration
    • Through the carrier bed/ structure to the reservoir
primary migration
Primary Migration
  • Hypotheses
    • 1. Migration of hc’s in clay compaction water
    • 2. Migration by molecular solution in water
    • Migration in micellar solution
    • Migration in gas charged solution
    • Migration via microfracturing of source rocks
    • Diffusion along kerogen network
  • Arguable that all of these processes are in operation
secondary migration
Secondary Migration
  • Oil must be capable of continuous phase flow
  • Availability of continuous pore spaces allows continuous flow
  • Physical requirements for secondary migration are:
    • 1. Adequate supply of hydrocarbons
    • 2. Adequate continuous migration pathways
    • 3. Adequate pressure gradient to drive migration
migration by gas flushing
Migration by Gas Flushing
  • 2 fluids of different densities try to occupy the same trap
  • Heaviest fluid is displaced as lighter one moves above it
slide48

Different stages in the migration and accumulation of oil and gas in interconnected traps (after Gussow, 1968)