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Chapter 1:i Discovery of Early Humans in Africa

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  1. Chapter 1:i Discovery of Early Humans in Africa

  2. History- the story of mankind - is divided into two time periods: Circa 5,500 years ago Pre-history History The period of history before people recorded events in writing. The period during which people left written records of their activities.

  3. The historical periodis further sub-divided into periods: Circa 5,500 years ago Pre-history History 0 Anno Domini Before Christ Anno Dominimeans “In the year of the Lord”

  4. Hominid • member of the group that includes human beings and earlier human-like creatures

  5. Anthropologists study primitive cultures in an effort to understand our ancestors.

  6. The discipline ofAnthropologycan be divided into two fields: Physical Cultural Compare bones and other fossil remains looking for changes in such features as the brain and posture. Study artifacts and cultural characteristics of humans and their ancestors.

  7. Paleontologists are scientists who study fossil remains.

  8. Margaret Mead pioneered many of the techniques now employed by anthropologists to study human societies and their technology.

  9. Margaret Mead was honoured by the United States Post Office with a stamp for her pioneering work.

  10. Archaeologists are scientists who study earlier peoples and cultures.

  11. Artifacts are objects made or used by humans, such as tools, . . .

  12. ornaments, Source: Biblical Archaeology Review, January/February 2000, p. 19.

  13. Source: Biblical Archaeology Review, January/February 2000, p. 35. and pottery.

  14. Archaeologists often dig into midden piles to learn about past cultures.

  15. Distinctive designs identify which canned beverages the tab opened. Tab quantities indicate the popularity of each beverage. The brief time in which each tab design was manufactured helps date samples.

  16. Radiocarbon Dating • a modern scientific method for telling the age of once-living material by measuring the amount of radioactive carbon remaining in it

  17. Japanese paleontologist Gen Suwa found one of the oldest hominid teeth at a site near Aramis, Ethiopia, in 1972.

  18. Suwa and Tim D. White of the University of California eventually unearthed the remains of 17 individuals believed to have lived 4.4 million years ago.

  19. Lucy’s was the most nearly complete skeleton of any erect-walking pre-human found up that time.

  20. As scientist unearth more clues, newer evidence may require them to reinterpret older evidence.

  21. Wanna go for a walk? Howdy cousin! Many scientists believe that Australopithecus (“southern ape”) was the first pre-human hominid. [Image source: http://www.toyen.uio.no/human/afarensis.htm]

  22. They lived in the humid forests of eastern and southern Africa. [Image source: http://www.toyen.uio.no/human/australopithecus.htm]

  23. Australopithecines were probably nomads who fed on fruits, leaves, and nuts, as well as fish caught in streams and meat scavenged from animals killed by predators. [Image source: http://www.toyen.uio.no/human/australopithecus.htm]

  24. Earth experienced four long periods of cold climate known as Ice Ages where glaciers spread out and covered large portions of the earth.

  25. Culture the way of life of a given people at a given time; it includes . . . • knowledge • language • behaviour (dietary laws and dress) • religious beliefs • achievements in art and music

  26. Technology is the the skills and knowledge used by people to make tools and do work. [Image source: http://www.nativewayonline.com/knapsu_1.ht]

  27. The period in history before the advent of writing when people first learned to fashion tools out of stone is known as theStone Age. Circa 5,500 years ago Pre-history History Stone Age 2.5 m.y.a 12,000 B.C. 8,000 B.C. Paleolithic Mesolithic Neolithic Middle Stone Age Old Stone Age New Stone Age

  28. Homo Habilis (“human of ability”) are probably the oldest hominids known to manufacture tools. [Image source: http://www.toyen.uio.no/human/australopithecus.htm]

  29. [Image source: http://ampere.scale.uiuc.edu/anth102/oldowan.html]

  30. The Leakey Family

  31. At first mostly food gatherers,Homo Erectus (“human who walks upright”) eventually learned how to hunt animals.

  32. Distribution of Homo erectus remains. [Image source: http://www.scale.uiuc.edu/anth102/erectus_map_txt.html]

  33. [Image source: http://ampere.scale.uiuc.edu/anth102/ach_handaxe.html]