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Chapter 12: Kingdoms & Trading States of Africa. Section 1: Early Civilizations of Africa Section 2: Kingdoms of West Africa Section 3: Trade Routes of East Africa Section 4: Many Peoples, Many Traditions. Chapter 12: Africa. Chapter 12: Africa.

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Chapter 12: Kingdoms & Trading States of Africa


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    1. Chapter 12: Kingdoms & Trading States of Africa Section 1: Early Civilizations of Africa Section 2: Kingdoms of West Africa Section 3: Trade Routes of East Africa Section 4: Many Peoples, Many Traditions

    2. Chapter 12: Africa

    3. Chapter 12: Africa

    4. Section 1: Early Civilizations of Africa • Summary: • The varied climates, physical features, and natural resources of Africa helped create diverse ways of life

    5. Section 1: Early Civilizations of Africa • Geography has always influenced how Africans live • Most Africans live in the savanna • These grassy plains are good for farming and cattle herding

    6. Section 1: Early Civilizations of Africa • Many people also settled in the fertile Nile River Valley • Several large deserts made it difficult to travel in parts of Africa

    7. Section 1: Early Civilizations of Africa • Steep waterfalls on several of Africa’s major rivers limited contact between the coast and the interior of the continent • However, people did migrate and trade

    8. Section 1: Early Civilizations of Africa • The kingdom of Nubia emerged in North Africa at the same time Egyptian civilization developed • Nubia and Egypt had contact through trade and war

    9. Section 1: Early Civilizations of Africa • As a result, the Nubians adopted many Egyptian ways • They built palaces and pyramids in the Egyptian style • At the same time Nubians developed their own civilization

    10. Section 1: Early Civilizations of Africa • By controlling trade routes, Nubia grew wealthy • The Nubian system of writing used an alphabet, not hieroglyphics

    11. Section 1: Early Civilizations of Africa • Several early civilizations influenced North Africa • Trade linked Egypt with Greece and Mesopotamia • Later Roman conquerors built roads and cities across North Africa

    12. Section 1: Early Civilizations of Africa • Under Roman rule, Christianity spread • Merchants used camels brought in from Asia to create new trading networks across the Sahara

    13. Section 1: Early Civilizations of Africa • In the 600s, Arab armies spread Islam throughout North Africa • Over time, Islam replace Christianity and the Arabic language replaced Latin

    14. Section 1: Early Civilizations of Africa North Africa was influenced by many cultures

    15. Section 2: Kingdoms of West Africa • Summary: • West African rulers built powerful kingdoms by gaining control of trade routes and defeating their enemies

    16. Section 2: Kingdoms of West Africa • By A.D. 100, farming villages in WestAfrica were growing into towns • Over time, these towns became part of an important trade network • Gold and salt were the most important products traded

    17. Section 2: Kingdoms of West Africa • People needed salt in their diet to prevent dehydration, or loss of water • There was plenty of salt in the Sahara, but their was little in the Savanna • There, a block of salt was worth its weight in gold

    18. Section 2: Kingdoms of West Africa • Strong West African rulers created powerful kingdoms • These kingdoms gained control of the trade routes • By 800, the kingdom of Ghana controlled trade in gold and salt across West Africa

    19. Section 2: Kingdoms of West Africa • Around 1250, the kingdom of Mali crushed Ghana and won control of the gold trade routes • Mali built Timbuktu • Timbuktu became a center of learning

    20. Section 2: Kingdoms of West Africa • Around 1450, a new kingdom called Songhai emerged • The ruler of Songhai built the largest state that had ever existed in West Africa

    21. Section 2: Kingdoms of West Africa • Muslim merchants brought their religion when they settled throughout West Africa • In time, however, Islam became an important influence

    22. Section 2: Kingdoms of West Africa • The emperor of Mali, Mansa Musa, converted to Islam • He based his system of government on the Quran (Koran)

    23. Section 2: Kingdoms of West Africa • West African kingdoms also used Muslim military technology • They adopted Muslim ideas, including written language, coins, and business language

    24. Section 2: Kingdoms of West Africa

    25. Section 3: Trade Routes of East Africa • Summary: • Trade route across the Indian Ocean linked East Africa with other regions

    26. Section 3: Trade Routes of East Africa • The kingdom of Axum was located on the coast of East Africa • In A.D. 350, Axum conquered and absorbed Nubia

    27. Section 3: Trade Routes of East Africa • Axum controlled a trade network that linked Africa, India, and the Mediterranean world • In the cities of Axum, Africans mixed with the peoples of other lands

    28. Section 3: Trade Routes of East Africa • In the 300s, the king of Axum converted to Christianity • Over time, Christianity spread throughout the kingdom • Civil war and the spread of Islam in North Africa led to the decline of the Axum

    29. Section 3: Trade Routes of East Africa • However, people living in the mountains continued to practice Christianity • These people became the ancestors of the Ethiopians

    30. Section 3: Trade Routes of East Africa • EthiopianChristians borrowed many different traditions from other cultures: • They adapted East African music & dance • They observed Jewish holidays and rules about diet

    31. Section 3: Trade Routes of East Africa • While the Axum declined, other trading cities arose along the East African coast • In the 600s, Arab and Persian merchants set up Muslim communities there

    32. Section 3: Trade Routes of East Africa • By 1000, merchant ships from port cities such as Mogadishu sailed to India to trade • Trade led to a mixing of cultures in East Africa

    33. Section 3: Trade Routes of East Africa • Over time, this blending of cultures resulted in a new language called Swahili

    34. Section 3: Trade Routes of East Africa • Swahili mixed Arabic words with Bantu, an African language

    35. Section 3: Trade Routes of East Africa The Rise of East African Trading Cities -Early trade with Phoenician, Greek, Roman, Arab, Chinese, and Indian merchants -Trading communities set up on the eastern coast East African trading cities develop Short-Term Effects: -Growth of strong city-states -Rise of slave trade Long-Term Effects: -Rich mix of cultures -Dev. Of Swahili Lang.

    36. Section 4: Many Peoples, Many Traditions • Summary: • Village governments, family bonds, and religious beliefs gave people a sense of community

    37. Section 4: Many Peoples, Many Traditions • Across Africa, people lived in different ways • In the desert people gathered roots and herbs and hunted small animals • They lived in small groups

    38. Section 4: Many Peoples, Many Traditions • In some parts of the Savanna, nomadic people raised cattle • Along the coast people fished • They traded extra fish for grains and animal skins

    39. Section 4: Many Peoples, Many Traditions • Farming communities grew many crops, such as grains, yams, and bananas

    40. Section 4: Many Peoples, Many Traditions • The village, the family, and religion were important in Africa • Most farming people lived in villages • Villagers helped each other with planting and harvesting

    41. Section 4: Many Peoples, Many Traditions • Each African family belonged to a lineage, or group of households who claimed a common ancestor • Several lineages formed a clan • Belonging to a family, lineage or clan helped each person to feel a part of the community

    42. Section 4: Many Peoples, Many Traditions • Africans had many different religious beliefs • Villagers worshiped many gods and goddesses

    43. Section 4: Many Peoples, Many Traditions • Many Africans believed that the spirits of their ancestors could help them • They tried to influence the spirits of nature with rituals and ceremonies

    44. Section 4: Many Peoples, Many Traditions • Art and literature strengthened African society • African artists used ivory, wood, and bronze

    45. Section 4: Many Peoples, Many Traditions • Some art was only for decoration • Statues and masks were often used in religious ceremonies

    46. Section 4: Many Peoples, Many Traditions • Many African societies used stories to teach history and values • In WestAfrica, storytellers called griots passed stories from generation to generation

    47. Section 4: Many Peoples, Many Traditions Diverse African Traditions

    48. Appendix

    49. Appendix

    50. Appendix