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Chapter 1 Africa. I. A Huge and Diverse Land. Second largest continent in the world Desert , savannah, rain forest, mountain ranges. II. Birthplace of Humanity. Fossil and genetic evidence Out -of-Africa model Modern humans emerged 200,000 years ago

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Chapter 1 Africa

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chapter 1 africa
Chapter 1


i a huge and diverse land
I. A Huge and Diverse Land
  • Second largest continent in the world
  • Desert, savannah, rain forest, mountain ranges
ii birthplace of humanity
II. Birthplace of Humanity
  • Fossil and genetic evidence
  • Out-of-Africa model
  • Modern humans emerged 200,000 years ago
  • Migrated to the rest of the world 100,000 years ago
  • Homo erectus – upright man
  • 1.6 million years ago
modern africa
Modern Africa
  • Home to 56 countries.
  • Civil unrest, many wars
  • Genocide
iii ancient civilizations
III. Ancient Civilizations
  • Egypt and the Nile River Valley
  • Egypt influenced Greek and Western civilization
  • 18thcentury racial policies didn’t credit Egypt's influence over western civilization.
  • Religion, commerce, art, philosophy, science, mathematics
ancient egypt
Ancient Egypt
  • What comes to mind when you think of Ancient Egypt?
  • Approximately 3000 years
  • USA 237 years this July 4
  • One of the earliest, most advanced dynasties this world has ever known.
3 ancient civilizations
3 Ancient civilizations
  • Kush, Meroe and Axum – some of the wealthiest, most powerful kingdoms of the ancient world were in Africa along the Nile River.
pharaohs and queens
Pharaohs and Queens

They were the kings or Queens of Egypt and were considered to be a half-human and half-god.

language education and the arts
Language, Education, and the Arts
  • The Egyptians used a type of writing called hieroglyphics. Hieroglyphics are a form of writing with pictures that represent words.

Initially, the ancient Egyptians buried their dead in small pits in the desert. The heat and dryness of the sand dehydrated the bodies quickly, creating lifelike and natural 'mummies'.



Later, the ancient Egyptians began burying their dead in coffins to protect them from wild animals in the desert.


Steps1. Announcement of Death 2. Embalming the Body 3. Removal of Brain 4. Removal of Internal Organs 5. Drying Out Process 6. Wrapping of the Body 7. Final Procession


Journey to the Underworld

The dead travel on the “Solar Barque.”

A boat for the journey is provided for a dead pharaoh in his tomb.


Heart Balancing

If the heart balanced the feather, the soul of the mummy was granted immortality. If the heart was heavier than the feather (if the sins outweighed the virtues), the soul was doomed to a horrible fate.


The Final Judgement

Anubis Horus Osiris


Egyptian Mummies

Ramses II1279-1212 B. C. E.

Seti I1291-1278 B. C. E.

Queen Tiye, wife of Amenhotep II1210-1200 B. C. E.

the egyptian pyramids

The Egyptian Pyramids

Transcending the dead to the afterlife


The Great Pyramids of Giza

Perfectly Square

50 stories high

2.3 million stones weighing between 2.5-15 tons

contents of coffins
Contents of Coffins
  • Clothing-Valuable
  • Food
  • Treasure, money
  • Pets
  • Script-map of afterworld
the sphinx
The Sphinx

Temple Guardians


Abu Simbel

Monument to Pharaoh Ramses II and Queen Nefertiti

Used to celebrate battle of Kadesh(largest chariot battle ever fought) and intimidate Nubian Neighbors

reasons for pyramids
Reasons for pyramids
  • The pyramid is a shape of power, importance and knowledge
  • They only buried pharaohs in Pyramids
iv west africa
IV. West Africa
  • Physically, ethnically, and culturally diverse
  • Savannah and forest
  • Home to a variety of cultures and languages
  • Divided labor by gender
  • Accorded semi-divine status to their kings
  • Cultivated crops
  • Produced iron tools and weapons
  • Trade with North Africa
  • Essential part of the economy and kingdoms
  • First known kingdom in the western Sudan
  • Founded between fourth and eight centuries CE
  • Warfare and iron weapons created an empire
  • Commerce
  • Camel caravans
  • Imported silk, cotton, glass beads, horses, mirrors, dates, and salt
  • Exported pepper, slaves, and gold mined in another region and taxed passing through
  • Commerce and religion destroyed Ghana in the 12th century
empire of mali
Empire of Mali
  • Commerce, bureaucracy and scholarship
  • Most merchants and rulers
  • Muslims by 1210s
  • Converted to gain stature among Arab states
  • Timbuktu
  • Major trading hub
  • Gold, slaves, and salt
  • Center of Islamic learning ~13th century
  • 150 Islamic schools
empire of songhai 1461 1591
Empire of Songhai, 1461-1591
  • The last and largest of the Sudanese empires
  • Songhai failed to adapt to changing political atmosphere
  • Portuguese established trading centers along the Guinea coast
class and slavery
Class and Slavery
  • Royalty
    • Landed nobles, warriors, peasants and bureaucrats
  • Lower classes
      • Artisans and laborers: blacksmiths, butchers, tanners, and oral historians
  • Slavery
  • Common in West Africa
  • More so in the savannah region than in forest areas
  • Variety of forms
  • Not necessarily a permanent condition
cool down
Cool Down
  • Write down something that you learned today that you feel is the most interesting.
  • Why do you think American History has neglected to include African kingdoms in its history, and started African-American History with slavery?