Chapter 1 Africa. I. A Huge and Diverse Land. Second largest continent in the world Desert , savannah, rain forest, mountain ranges. II. Birthplace of Humanity. Fossil and genetic evidence Out -of-Africa model Modern humans emerged 200,000 years ago
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They were the kings or Queens of Egypt and were considered to be a half-human and half-god.
Initially, the ancient Egyptians buried their dead in small pits in the desert. The heat and dryness of the sand dehydrated the bodies quickly, creating lifelike and natural 'mummies'.
Later, the ancient Egyptians began burying their dead in coffins to protect them from wild animals in the desert.
Steps1. Announcement of Death 2. Embalming the Body 3. Removal of Brain 4. Removal of Internal Organs 5. Drying Out Process 6. Wrapping of the Body 7. Final Procession
The dead travel on the “Solar Barque.”
A boat for the journey is provided for a dead pharaoh in his tomb.
If the heart balanced the feather, the soul of the mummy was granted immortality. If the heart was heavier than the feather (if the sins outweighed the virtues), the soul was doomed to a horrible fate.
Anubis Horus Osiris
Ramses II1279-1212 B. C. E.
Seti I1291-1278 B. C. E.
Queen Tiye, wife of Amenhotep II1210-1200 B. C. E.
Transcending the dead to the afterlife
50 stories high
2.3 million stones weighing between 2.5-15 tons
Monument to Pharaoh Ramses II and Queen Nefertiti
Used to celebrate battle of Kadesh(largest chariot battle ever fought) and intimidate Nubian Neighbors