Computer Ethics : A Global Perspective Computer Crime and SecurityCompiled By: Muhammad Imran Saeed
Objectives • What is Computer Crime • Who are the Computer Criminals? • Computer Frauds • Hackers and Hacking • Computer Sabotage • Security, Legislation and Education
2.1 What is Computer Crime • Different illegal activities related to computers and computer networks are usually classified as Computer Crime. • Any Criminal Act that has been committed using a computer as the principal tool. • Different type of Computer crimes like computer sabotage, theft, fraud, cyber-terrorism etc.
2.1 What is Computer Crime • Nature of Computer Crimes is antiseptic:a) involves little physical dangerb) low risk of detection|c) considered as victimless crimes • Actual amount of computer crimes is much greater than reported.
2.1 What is Computer Crime • Why Computer Crimes are not Reported:1) Some Computer Crimes are difficult to detect.2) Some Companies cover up computer crimes due to the fear of publicity (bad repute).3) Many individuals are not aware of rules as well as afraid of consequences.
2.1 What is Computer Crime • Reasons of failure to report Computer Crimes:1)Reason of Bad publicity and reputation.2) Lack of confidence on authorities3) Lack of Special Investigators4) Ignorance of Rights5) Ignorance of Who is incharge/authority6) Fear of TEACHING new ideas and Methods.
2.1 What is Computer Crime • Reasons of failure to report Computer Crimes: (Cont..)7)Frustration with Expensive prosecutions, time-consuming investigations and light sentences (punishments).8) Lack of Confidence in existing laws, which are monolithic to computer technology, and juries who do not regard computer crimes as serious crimes (Lack of technical knowledge).
2.1 What is Computer Crime • Reasons of failure to report Computer Crimes: (Cont..)9) A Normal person get a silence pleasure when hears against big business and big companies.10) Media glorifies a computer criminal as a kind of modern hero, who robs the information rich and helps the information poor.
2.1 What is Computer Crime (Cont..) • Two Categories of Computer Crimes:- Crime Against Computers:Damaging computer Software/ Hardware and destroying the data/ information- Crimes committed using computers:Theft of Services, theft of information, computer frauds, organized computer crimes.
2.2 Who are the Computer Criminals • Ambitious persons with impressive educational credentials, technically competent [Steven Mandell]. Take hacking as a Challenge. • Criminals can be outsiders and insiders.Insiders: Coming from within the companyOutsiders: Skillful hackers and terrorists. • (Be careful if you are Muslim and doing just hacking, you’ll be considered as Cyber-Terrorists )
2.3 Computer Fraud • Two Categories of Computer Frauds:-Computer Related Frauds- Computer Assisted Frauds • Computer Frauds may involve:1. Theft of Money2. Theft of Information3. Theft of GoodsTheft of Services.
2.3 Computer Fraud • ATM Fraud • EFT (Electronic Fund Transfer) Fraud. • EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) • Credit Card Fraud • Telecomm Fraud • Cable TV/Internet Fraud • Internet Stock FraudNote: Read Details from book.
2.4 Hacker and Hacking • Hackers: A person who get unauthorized access to computer resources. (not always negative) • Hacking: Unauthorized access to computer material. • Cracker: A person who gains illegal access of a system for malicious purpose.
2.4 Hacker and Hacking (Cont..) • Phreaking: came from word “phone”. Illegal access to telephone services to achieve goals. • Cypherpunk: a Person who enters into a system illegally and wishes to create new regions of privacy where the system will not be able to invade. Use Cryptography (a mechanism to encode/hide the information from human readability). • Hactivism: The use of hacking for political purposes e.g., to promote a political cause etc.
2.4 Hacker and Hacking (Cont..) • Basic Hacking Techniques:- PiggyBacking: Invading a system by pretending to be a legitimate user of the network.- Scavenging: Hacker searches in stray data for clues to unlock a targeted system. Another similar technique is Dumpster Diving in which hacker searches electronic garbage for the same.- Password Guessing: Cracking the password… with Dictionary attacks or Hybrid Attacks._ Auto Dialing: Systematically dialing until some computer replies.- Zapping: Getting access to the system by breaking the master key and then destroying it (malicious activity).
2.4 Hacker and Hacking (Cont..) • Home Assignment: Read the properties/characteristics of hackers given by different authors/school of thoughts.