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Industrial Revolution - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Industrial Revolution
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  1. Industrial Revolution

  2. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION The transformation of society from agricultural and cottage industries to urban factory life because of new inventions

  3. Agricultural Revolution = “More Food”

  4. Agricultural Revolution = “More Food” • Crop Rotation – Fewer farmers needed • Lord Townshend in England introduced crop rotation – land could now be used year-round; certain crops revitalized soil

  5. Enclosed Farms – Increased farming efficiency • Enclosure movement had large land owners buying and then fencing public land

  6. Livestock Breeding – More productive Average Weight of Steer 1700: 370 lbs 1786: 840 lbs Average Weight of Sheep 1700: 28 lbs 1786: 100 lbs

  7. New inventions - “ Increased productivity and lowered prices of food” Jethro Tull’s seed drill was one of the inventions which helped improve agricultural production and led to the need for fewer workers on the farm.

  8. More Productive – Meat and Wheat = less starvation • More food produced = population increase • Cheaper prices for food • Better nutrition (improved health care) • In 1700 there were about 100 million people in Europe, by 1800 the population had grown to over 200 million Europe Population 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 100 163 203 276 408

  9. Smaller farmers pushed off of land to work as wage laborers for various land owners or to move to the growing cities

  10. Textile Industry Takes Off Domestic system (cottage industry) had dominated the early 1700s; merchants dropped off raw materials at people’s homes, picked up finished products later

  11. Series of inventions modernize textile manufacturing, including: 1733 - Flying Shuttle (John Kay) – Used to weave cloth

  12. 1767 – Spinning Jenny (James Hargreaves) – Allowed for multiple threads to be woven together

  13. 1769 – Water Frame (Richard Arkwright) – Used water to power the spinning frame

  14. 1785 – Water Loom (Edmund Cartwright) – First machine that could weave cloth

  15. 1793 – Cotton Gin (Eli Whitney) – Machine that separated cotton seeds from the cotton

  16. These advancements resulted in the movement of work from the home to the factory

  17. New Inventions -“Increased Productivity and Lowered Prices” Advances in Steam “Factory Machines to Trains” James Watt developed the first practical steam engine in 1765

  18. Britain Industrializes First • TRANSPORTATION • Geographical advantages include a large river system for water power and many natural harbors for easy trade

  19. Britain Industrializes First • 1715-1850 • NATURAL RESOURCES • Many natural resources available in Britain, including large amounts of coal, iron and water

  20. Britain Industrializes First • CAPITAL ($) • A strong, stable government allowed a strong, stable economy to develop which resulted in extra money to invest • Banking and shipping industries already in place

  21. Britain Industrializes First • MARKETS “PLACES TO SELL” • Colonial empire provided much needed raw materials and markets British Empire 1800s

  22. Britain Industrializes First • LABOR SUPPLY • Britain had a large population which allowed them to build many factories • Labor wages were low because there were so many people moving from the farms to the cities

  23. Britain Industrializes First • SOCIAL CLIMATE • Highly educated population • Very science minded, innovative middle class • Scientific Revolution in England had prepared the way for inventions to be applied to industry

  24. Britain Industrializes First All of these factors resulted in the INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

  25. Changes Brought by the Industrial Revolution • Invention of the steam engine in 1763 by James Watt shifts labor from humans and animals to machines • Inventions continue to make life, manufacturing, and farming easier and better – Products cost much less • Continuous reinvestment of profits fuel even greater growth • Inventions in one area often led to inventions in others • Transportation and communication systems are greatly enhanced

  26. Changes Brought by the Industrial Revolution • Cities begin to dominate the western world**** • Creates a new social order with the rise of an influential MIDDLE CLASS (Standard of Living & ) • Poor working and living conditions for lower classes eventually lead to new social and political movements (LABOR UNIONS) • Need for markets and resources force Europeans to take over foreign lands (imperialism)