European History Review. The Age of Exploration. 1444. Prince Henry the Navigator began exploring the west coast of Africa He would go on to establish a special school for navigation. Portuguese Explorers. Henry the Navigator – Portuguese prince who sponsored exploration and expansion
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Prince Henry the Navigator began exploring the west coast of Africa
He would go on to establish a special school for navigation
Christopher Columbus set sail to discover a shorter route to India.
He discovers the Caribbean Islands and incites a new vigor to explore
Pedro Cabral reached the coast of Brazil and claimed it for Portugal
GOD –Some Europeans believed it was their Christian duty to spread Christianity
GOLD –Desire for new luxuries (spices & gold) sparked interest in exploration
GLORY- European countries began to compete w/ one another for NATURAL RESOURCES and TRADE POWER.
The Russian Revolution started in 1917 with the overthrow of the Russian monarchy, also known as a czarist government. The revolutionaries were educated Russians who were politically radical and were tired of the shortages faced because nearly all resources were sent to soldiers fighting on the front. Marxism sprang out of this revolution, along with anarchism. One of the revolutionist parties, the Bolsheviks, had started a revolution in 1903. In March 1917, Czar Nicholas II abdicated (stepped down from) his throne. The Bolsheviks gained control of the Russian government in November 1917 and created a dictatorship under Vladimir Lenin.
Both Japan and Italy had fought alongside the Allies during WWI, but neither was fully satisfied with their rewards from the Treaty of Versailles. Italy had gained more land from the victory, but the treaty did not grant all of its claims. Japan succeeded in gaining control of Germany's former colonies in the Pacific, but Japan's ultimate goal was to gain control of China, and China did not play a role in World War I. The first military activity in World War II would involve Japan attacking China to achieve this goal.
European nations thought it was better to appease German fascists who broke treaty restrictions than to take action. After terrible World War I, Europe wanted to avoid more fighting. Therefore, no action was taken when Hitler’s forces entered Czechoslovakia.
Europe was unstable between the two World Wars, largely due to economic reasons. Great poverty led people to accept radical change and the promises of fascist dictators like Hitler and Mussolini.
The Bolshevik Revolution in Russia in 1917 had Europeans worried. People feared the spread of Communism. Fascist dictators promised to prevent this spread.
Impoverished people were quick to look for easy answers and people to blame. Scapegoats were desirable for the problems they dealt with. Jews, Poles (people from Poland), and Chinese all suffered for this.
means trying to control other countries and take them over, in order to make one’s own country more powerful. Hitler gained power in 1933. He wanted to make Germany the most powerful country in Europe. Germany began taking over other countries. When Germany invaded Poland in 1939, Britain and France declared war. This started World War II.
was a worldwide military conflict that was one of the most devastating wars in human history. It began in 1939 as a European conflict between Germany and an Anglo-French coalition. However, it eventually widened to include most of the nations of the world. It ended in 1945, leaving a new world order dominated by the United States and the USSR.
Prince Henry the Navigator explores the West Coast of Africa and founds a school of Navigation
Christopher Columbus sets sail for India
Pedro Carbal reaches Brazil in the name of Portugal
Cortes conquers the Aztecs and claims land for Spain
Francisco Pizarro conquers the Inca and claims modern day Peru and Ecuador for Spain
British Captan James Cook claims Australia and New Zealand for U.K.
British found the first colony in Australia as a “penal colony”
Sinking of the Lusitania
Zimmerman Telegram is intercepted
The Russian Revolution begins in Russia
The Treaty of Versailles is signed
Hitler comes to power in Germany and begins persecuting Jews
The Holocaust begins – 6 million Jews are Murdered
The beginning of the Cold War - date the Japanese formally surrendered thus marking the end of World War II
Fall of the Berlin Wall
Reunification of Germany
dissolution of the Soviet Union