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European History Review. The Age of Exploration. 1444. Prince Henry the Navigator began exploring the west coast of Africa He would go on to establish a special school for navigation. Portuguese Explorers. Henry the Navigator – Portuguese prince who sponsored exploration and expansion

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Prince Henry the Navigator began exploring the west coast of Africa

He would go on to establish a special school for navigation

portuguese explorers
Portuguese Explorers
  • Henry the Navigator – Portuguese prince who sponsored exploration and expansion
    • Invaded the Northern coast of Africa and discovered great riches.
    • Supported Navigation education in Portugal
    • Opened a school and invited mapmakers, shipbuilders, and navigators (expert sailors) from all over the country to attend.
    • His shipbuilders invented the caravel – a ship that was larger, stronger, faster, and easier to steer than other ships of the day.

Christopher Columbus set sail to discover a shorter route to India.

He discovers the Caribbean Islands and incites a new vigor to explore


Pedro Cabral reached the coast of Brazil and claimed it for Portugal

  • Heran Cortes conquered the Aztecs and claimed parts of Central America for Spain
  • Ferdinand Magellan made the first round the world voyage
    • Was the first to reach Asia
    • Claimed parts of the Philippines for Spain
  • Francisco Pizarro conquered the Inca
    • Claimed the lands currently known as Peru and Ecuador.
the 3 g s
The 3 G’s

GOD –Some Europeans believed it was their Christian duty to spread Christianity

GOLD –Desire for new luxuries (spices & gold) sparked interest in exploration

GLORY- European countries began to compete w/ one another for NATURAL RESOURCES and TRADE POWER.

how colonization produces profits
How Colonization produces Profits!
    • raw materials
    • taken from new colonies and shipped home>
  • Manufactured Goods
    • Factories produce goods to be sold in market >
  • Markets
    • Goods are sold in the home country & in the colonies where the raw materials were removed.
world war i powers
World War I Powers
  • Allied Powers
    • Great BritainFranceRussiaItaly
  • Central Powers
    • Austria-HungaryGermanyBulgariaTurkey
1917 russian and bolshevik revolutions begin
1917: Russian and Bolshevik Revolutions begin

The Russian Revolution started in 1917 with the overthrow of the Russian monarchy, also known as a czarist government. The revolutionaries were educated Russians who were politically radical and were tired of the shortages faced because nearly all resources were sent to soldiers fighting on the front. Marxism sprang out of this revolution, along with anarchism. One of the revolutionist parties, the Bolsheviks, had started a revolution in 1903. In March 1917, Czar Nicholas II abdicated (stepped down from) his throne. The Bolsheviks gained control of the Russian government in November 1917 and created a dictatorship under Vladimir Lenin.

1919 treaty of versailles is signed
1919: Treaty of Versailles is signed
  • The Treaty of VersaillesThe Treaty of Versailles, which ended World War I, is considered one of the most punitive treaties in history. It set out to humiliate the Germans at the end of WWI by making them:
  • take full responsibility for the war
  • pay reparations
  • give up land in Europe and all of its overseas territories
  • It is considered a direct cause of Hitler’s rise to power and, therefore, World War II aggression.
disappointed victors
Disappointed victors

Both Japan and Italy had fought alongside the Allies during WWI, but neither was fully satisfied with their rewards from the Treaty of Versailles. Italy had gained more land from the victory, but the treaty did not grant all of its claims. Japan succeeded in gaining control of Germany's former colonies in the Pacific, but Japan's ultimate goal was to gain control of China, and China did not play a role in World War I. The first military activity in World War II would involve Japan attacking China to achieve this goal.

appeasement policy
Appeasement policy

European nations thought it was better to appease German fascists who broke treaty restrictions than to take action. After terrible World War I, Europe wanted to avoid more fighting. Therefore, no action was taken when Hitler’s forces entered Czechoslovakia.

depression and poverty
Depression and poverty

Europe was unstable between the two World Wars, largely due to economic reasons. Great poverty led people to accept radical change and the promises of fascist dictators like Hitler and Mussolini.


The Bolshevik Revolution in Russia in 1917 had Europeans worried. People feared the spread of Communism. Fascist dictators promised to prevent this spread.

racism and scapegoats
Racism and Scapegoats

Impoverished people were quick to look for easy answers and people to blame. Scapegoats were desirable for the problems they dealt with. Jews, Poles (people from Poland), and Chinese all suffered for this.

setting the stage for wwii
Setting the stage for WWII
  • Political instability and economic devastation in Europe resulting from World War I
    • Worldwide depression
    • High war debt owed by Germany
    • High inflation
    • Massive unemployment
  • Rise of Fascism
    • Fascism is a political philosophy in which total power is given to a dictator and individual freedoms are denied.
    • Fascist dictators included Adolf Hitler (Germany), Benito Mussolini (Italy), and Hideki Tojo (Japan).

means trying to control other countries and take them over, in order to make one’s own country more powerful. Hitler gained power in 1933. He wanted to make Germany the most powerful country in Europe. Germany began taking over other countries. When Germany invaded Poland in 1939, Britain and France declared war. This started World War II.

world war ii
World War II

was a worldwide military conflict that was one of the most devastating wars in human history. It began in 1939 as a European conflict between Germany and an Anglo-French coalition. However, it eventually widened to include most of the nations of the world. It ended in 1945, leaving a new world order dominated by the United States and the USSR.


Prince Henry the Navigator explores the West Coast of Africa and founds a school of Navigation

Christopher Columbus sets sail for India

Pedro Carbal reaches Brazil in the name of Portugal

Cortes conquers the Aztecs and claims land for Spain

Francisco Pizarro conquers the Inca and claims modern day Peru and Ecuador for Spain

British Captan James Cook claims Australia and New Zealand for U.K.

British found the first colony in Australia as a “penal colony”


Archduke Franz Ferdinand is assassinated beginning World War I

Sinking of the Lusitania

Zimmerman Telegram is intercepted

The Russian Revolution begins in Russia

The Treaty of Versailles is signed

Hitler comes to power in Germany and begins persecuting Jews

The Holocaust begins – 6 million Jews are Murdered


The United States and the U.S.S. R. emerge as Superpowers after WWII

The beginning of the Cold War - date the Japanese formally surrendered thus marking the end of World War II

  • Perestroika
  • The bay of pigs
  • Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Solidarity

Fall of the Berlin Wall

Reunification of Germany

dissolution of the Soviet Union