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Rome

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  1. Art as demonstration of power Rome

  2. New Vocabulary Concrete forum Groined vault Barrel vault dome Basilica Nave Cleristory apse Atrium Domus insula

  3. Does Rome have a unique characteristic style of art?

  4. Roman architecture reflected that of Greece, but a totally Roman purpose- both public and private architecture • suggests Greek influence following Roman conquest of Greece in 146 BC (Ionic columns)- but not copy of Greek- Temple of Fortuna Virilis, 2nd C. BC

  5. Maison Carree-- Nimes, France

  6. Common Plan for Roman Temples Plan, Fortuna Virilis

  7. Combined Greek elements with ancient Roman peasant hut design Temple of Sibyl at Tivoli, early 1st century BC

  8. Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia, 1st century BC • East of Rome- presence of strange cult, dedicated to Fortuna (Fate)- a mother deity and oracle • unearthed through bombings in 1944- • all surfaces now are of concrete- fits into the hillside- architecture seems to grow from rock- this was not possible in Greece- comparable to New Kingdom in Egypt

  9. Model of Fortuna

  10. Forums of Rome - Julius Caesar planned a similar scaled project in Rome • Caesar’s Forums were a combination religious shrine and personal glorification • Became the model of all imperial forums, although nothing remains today of any of them Plan of the Forums, Rome

  11. Pont du Gard, Nimes, France, early 1st century BC • Arch and vault became standard construction for engineering projects • Used in aqueducts and sewers, designed for efficiency rather than beauty • Relays sense of order and permanence

  12. Aqueduct--Segovia, Spain Segovia Detail-- Dressed Stone No mortar

  13. Colosseum, Rome, 72-80 BC • Enormous amphitheater for gladitorial games-in the center of Rome • One of the largest single buildings in history • Efficient-meant to serve large amount of human traffic (50,000 people) • Utilizes both the barrel vault and the groined vault (two barrel vaults at right angles

  14. Fine balance between vertical and horizontal elements • Engaged columns, series of arches • Three classical orders are used- Doric is on the ground floor (weighty), Ionic, and then Corinthian-lightening of the proportions, but its barely noticeable

  15. Round style temple • From the outside, the cella looks like a simple cylindrical drum • Deep porch • The modern streets of Rome are a great deal higher than they were in ancient times - the steps up to the porch are now submerged in pavement Pantheon, Rome, 118-25 AD f

  16. Dedicated to the seven planetary gods • Dome is a true hemisphere, emits plenty of light • Base had to be made much heavier than the top • Weight rests on 8 wide pillars- this allows for niches around the side • Inside of dome was originally gold gilt Interior of the Pantheon by Pannini C.1740

  17. Plans of the Pantheon

  18. Basilica of Constantine, Rome, 310-20 AD

  19. Largest roofed interior in all of Rome • Basilica- long halls that served civic purposes- standard feature of every Roman town- usually held the courts • Nave- the center tract • Cleristory- the upper part of the nave, pierced with large windows to let in light • This was possible because the groined vaults helped center the weight on the four corners Reconstruction drawing of the Basilica of Constantine

  20. Domestic Architecture-- • Single family house was called a Domus- for wealthy Romans • Each had an atrium, square central hall lighted by an opening in the roof • Many examples found at Pompeii and Herculaneum (buried 79 AD) • Silver Wedding- atrium flanked by Corinthian columns, basin to collect rain water in the center • Atriums were used for keeping family portraits of family ancestors • Further rooms were attached to the back of the house as well as clustered around the atrium • All shut off from the street with windowless walls Atrium, House of the Silver Wedding Pompeii, 1st c. AD

  21. Insula- less elegant • More urban- found ion Rome and around it • Similar to an apartment house-made of concrete or brick • Centered around a central court • Shops and taverns on the ground floor, living quarters on the second story • Not as private, for craftsmen and merchants Insula of the House of Diana, Ostia, 150 AD

  22. Late Roman Architecture • Up until the the end of the 1st century AD, Roman architecture stayed true to Greek orders and aesthetics • New architecture was more imaginative-especially in the African and Asiatic part of the empire • Market Gate- shape derived from Roman theater design Market Gate from Miletus (restored) c.160 AD • A continuous in and out rhythm of recesses and projections