Organic Chemistry • The study of carbon compounds • Most naturally occurring organic compounds are produced by living organisms. • Inorganic carbon compounds • CO2-source of carbon for all the organic molecules found in organisms
Bonds Formed by Carbon • When carbon has four single bonds, the bonds angle toward the corners of an imaginary tetrahedron.
When two carbon atom are joined by a double bond, all bonds around the carbon atom are in the same plane.
Carbon Skeletons • Carbon atoms form chains that are the skeletons for most organic molecules. They vary in length in formation. Straight
Isomers • Isomers are compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulas that cause the molecules to have different properties. • Structural – differ in covalent arrangement • Geometric- same covalent partnership but different spatial arrangements (arise from the inflexibility of a double bond) • Enantiomers- mirror images of each other
Functional Groups • Functional groups are attachments ( group of atoms that work together) that replace one or more of the H atoms attached to a carbon skeleton. • Each functional group behaves consistently from one organic molecule to another. • Functional groups give molecules unique properties.
Figure 4.8 A comparison of functional groups of female (estradiol) and male (testosterone) sex hormones
Six Important Functional Groups • Hydroxyl • Carbonyl • Carboxyl • Amino • Sulfhydryl • Phosphate