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The Importance of Carbon. Organic Chemistry. The study of carbon compounds Most naturally occurring organic compounds are produced by living organisms. Inorganic carbon compounds CO 2 - source of carbon for all the organic molecules found in organisms. Bonds Formed by Carbon.

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Organic chemistry l.jpg
Organic Chemistry

  • The study of carbon compounds

    • Most naturally occurring organic compounds are produced by living organisms.

    • Inorganic carbon compounds

      • CO2-source of carbon for all the organic molecules found in organisms


Bonds formed by carbon l.jpg
Bonds Formed by Carbon

  • When carbon has four single bonds, the bonds angle toward the corners of an imaginary tetrahedron.


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Carbon skeletons l.jpg
Carbon Skeletons around the carbon atom are in the same plane.

  • Carbon atoms form chains that are the skeletons for most organic molecules. They vary in length in formation.

Straight


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Branched around the carbon atom are in the same plane.

Ringed


Isomers l.jpg
Isomers around the carbon atom are in the same plane.

  • Isomers are compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulas that cause the molecules to have different properties.

    • Structural – differ in covalent arrangement

    • Geometric- same covalent partnership but different spatial arrangements (arise from the inflexibility of a double bond)

    • Enantiomers- mirror images of each other


Figure 4 6 three types of isomers l.jpg
Figure 4.6 Three types of isomers around the carbon atom are in the same plane.


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Functional Groups around the carbon atom are in the same plane.

  • Functional groups are attachments ( group of atoms that work together) that replace one or more of the H atoms attached to a carbon skeleton.

  • Each functional group behaves consistently from one organic molecule to another.

  • Functional groups give molecules unique properties.


Figure 4 8 a comparison of functional groups of female estradiol and male testosterone sex hormones l.jpg
Figure 4.8 A comparison of functional groups of female (estradiol) and male (testosterone) sex hormones


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Six Important Functional Groups (estradiol) and male (testosterone) sex hormones

  • Hydroxyl

  • Carbonyl

  • Carboxyl

  • Amino

  • Sulfhydryl

  • Phosphate